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      Safety and health measures compliance during the COVID-19 pandemic for community-based tourism in Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand: A cross-sectional descriptive study


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          Community-based tourism (CBT) in Thailand faces challenges in adapting to COVID-19 prevention measures. The purpose of the study was to evaluate levels of knowledge, practice, and compliance regarding safety and health measures of the entrepreneur in managing CBT under the Safety and Health Administration (SHA) standard in the new normal situation. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on twenty-one entrepreneurs from three CBTs in three districts in Nakhon Si Thammarat, in the months of February—May 2021. Levels of knowledge and practice were evaluated by questionnaires and compliance level was evaluated by SHA standard checklist. The level of knowledge and practice were categorized sufficient and insufficient, while compliance level was categorized as high or low if scores met or exceeded 80%, based on Bloom’s cut-off point. Information on sociodemographic characteristics was also gathered. Fisher’s exact test with a 95% confidence level (α < 0.05) was used for statistical analysis. The findings revealed that 66.7% and 38.1% of the establishments in the study had sufficient knowledge (Mean ± SD: 46.9 ± 7.2, Max: 55.0, Min: 33.0) and sufficient practice (Mean ± SD: 40.4 ± 9.2, Max: 55.0, Min: 29.0), respectively. In addition, the study found that knowledge level was significantly associated with practice level at a p-value of 0.018. However, compliance level was not related to knowledge and practice. In conclusion, the low level of compliance was due to a lack of understanding and motivation to comply with the standard, and the budget of small establishments in CBT for bringing them up to the SHA standard was quite limited. Therefore, the related organizations should use a variety of strategies to encourage entrepreneurs, such as partnership building and resource support.

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          Methodology Series Module 3: Cross-sectional Studies

          Cross-sectional study design is a type of observational study design. In a cross-sectional study, the investigator measures the outcome and the exposures in the study participants at the same time. Unlike in case–control studies (participants selected based on the outcome status) or cohort studies (participants selected based on the exposure status), the participants in a cross-sectional study are just selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria set for the study. Once the participants have been selected for the study, the investigator follows the study to assess the exposure and the outcomes. Cross-sectional designs are used for population-based surveys and to assess the prevalence of diseases in clinic-based samples. These studies can usually be conducted relatively faster and are inexpensive. They may be conducted either before planning a cohort study or a baseline in a cohort study. These types of designs will give us information about the prevalence of outcomes or exposures; this information will be useful for designing the cohort study. However, since this is a 1-time measurement of exposure and outcome, it is difficult to derive causal relationships from cross-sectional analysis. We can estimate the prevalence of disease in cross-sectional studies. Furthermore, we will also be able to estimate the odds ratios to study the association between exposure and the outcomes in this design.
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            Drivers and barriers to environmental supply chain management practices: Lessons from the public and private sectors

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              Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Towards COVID-19 Among Chronic Disease Patients at Addis Zemen Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

              Purpose The recent outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the worst global crisis after the Second World War. Since no successful treatment and vaccine have been reported, efforts to enhance the knowledge, attitudes, and practice of the public, especially the high-risk groups, are critical to manage COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, this study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice towards COVID-19 among patients with chronic disease. Patients and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 404 chronic disease patients from March 02 to April 10, 2020, at Addis Zemen Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Both bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses with a 95% confidence interval were fitted to identify factors associated with poor knowledge and practice towards COVID-19. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was used to determine the magnitude of the association between the outcome and independent variables. P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The mean age of the participants was 56.5±13.5. The prevalence of poor knowledge and poor practice was 33.9% and 47.3%, respectively. Forty-one percent of the participants perceived that avoiding of attending a crowded population is very difficult. Age (AOR=1.05, (95% CI (1.01–1.08)), educational status of “can’t read and write” (AOR=7.1, 95% CI (1.58–31.93)), rural residence (AOR=19.0, 95% CI (6.87–52.66)) and monthly income (AOR=0.8, 95% CI (0.79–0.89)) were significantly associated with poor knowledge. Being unmarried (AOR=3.9, 95% CI (1.47–10.58)), cannot read and write (AOR=2.7, 95% CI (1.03–7.29)), can read and write (AOR=3.5, 95% CI (1.48–8.38)), rural residence (AOR=2.7, 95% CI (1.09–6.70)), income of <7252 Ethiopian birr (AOR=2.3, 95% CI (1.20–4.15)) and poor knowledge (AOR=8.6, 95% CI (3.81–19.45)) were significantly associated with poor practice. Conclusion The prevalence of poor knowledge and poor practice was high. Leaflets prepared in local languages should be administered and health professionals should provide detailed information about COVID-19 to their patients.

                Author and article information

                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Formal analysisRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                PLoS One
                PLoS One
                PLOS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                5 March 2024
                : 19
                : 3
                : e0300030
                [1 ] Department of Environmental Health and Technology, School of Public Health, Walailak University, Thasala, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand
                [2 ] Excellent Center for Dengue and Community Public Health, Walailak University, Thasala, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand
                [3 ] Department of Community Public Health, School of Public Health, Walailak University, Thasala, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand
                [4 ] Research Center of Data Science for Health Science, Walailak University, Thasala, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand
                [5 ] School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Udayana University, Bali, Indonesia
                Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences: Magyar Agrar- es Elettudomanyi Egyetem, HUNGARY
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: No.

                Author information
                © 2024 Bumyut et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                : 19 July 2023
                : 20 February 2024
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, Pages: 16
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100021365, Institute of Research and Innovation, Walailak University;
                Award ID: WU-IRG-64-010
                Award Recipient :
                Yes, The authors disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research and authorship of this article: The authors received from Walailak University, research grant no. WU-IRG-64-010. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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                The submitted manuscript encompasses all data pertinent for public access. Nevertheless, specific datasets are restricted owing to confidentiality obligations related to study participants and regulations set forth by the Walailak University’s Human Research Ethics Committee. Researchers interested in these datasets may apply for access by reaching out to the Ethics Committee via email at wu.wuec@ 123456gmail.com , provided they fulfill the required criteria.



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