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      Reduction of the Double Bond of 6-Arylvinyl-1,2,4-trioxanes Leads to a Remarkable Increase in Their Antimalarial Activity against Multidrug-Resistant Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis in a Swiss Mice Model

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          Abstract

          Novel 6-arylethyl-1,2,4-trioxanes 6a–i and 7a–i are easily accessible in one step from the diimide reduction of 6-arylvinyl-1,2,4-trioxanes 5a–i. All of these new trioxanes were assessed for their oral antimalarial activity against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis in a Swiss mice model. Most of the saturated trioxanes 6c, 6f, 6g, 6h, and 6i, the active compounds of the series, provided 100% protection to the malaria-infected mice at a dose of 24 mg/kg × 4 days. Further, trioxane 6i, the most active compound of the series, also showed 100% protection even at a dose of 12 mg/kg × 4 days and 20% protection at a dose of 6 mg/kg × 4 days. In this model, β-arteether provided 100% protection at a dose of 48 mg/kg × 4 days and only 20% protection at a dose of 24 mg/kg × 4 days via the oral route, which was found to exhibit 4-fold antimalarial activity compared with the currently used drug β-arteether.

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          Identification of an antimalarial synthetic trioxolane drug development candidate.

          The discovery of artemisinin more than 30 years ago provided a completely new antimalarial structural prototype; that is, a molecule with a pharmacophoric peroxide bond in a unique 1,2,4-trioxane heterocycle. Available evidence suggests that artemisinin and related peroxidic antimalarial drugs exert their parasiticidal activity subsequent to reductive activation by haem, released as a result of haemoglobin digestion by the malaria-causing parasite. This irreversible redox reaction produces carbon-centred free radicals, leading to alkylation of haem and proteins (enzymes), one of which--the sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum ATPase PfATP6 (ref. 7)--may be critical to parasite survival. Notably, there is no evidence of drug resistance to any member of the artemisinin family of drugs. The chemotherapy of malaria has benefited greatly from the semi-synthetic artemisinins artemether and artesunate as they rapidly reduce parasite burden, have good therapeutic indices and provide for successful treatment outcomes. However, as a drug class, the artemisinins suffer from chemical (semi-synthetic availability, purity and cost), biopharmaceutical (poor bioavailability and limiting pharmacokinetics) and treatment (non-compliance with long treatment regimens and recrudescence) issues that limit their therapeutic potential. Here we describe how a synthetic peroxide antimalarial drug development candidate was identified in a collaborative drug discovery project.
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            A medicinal chemistry perspective on artemisinin and related endoperoxides.

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              Malaria chemotherapeutics part I: History of antimalarial drug development, currently used therapeutics, and drugs in clinical development.

              Since ancient times, humankind has had to struggle against the persistent onslaught of pathogenic microorganisms. Nowadays, malaria is still the most important infectious disease worldwide. Considerable success in gaining control over malaria was achieved in the 1950s and 60s through landscaping measures, vector control with the insecticide DDT, and the widespread administration of chloroquine, the most important antimalarial agent ever. In the late 1960s, the final victory over malaria was believed to be within reach. However, the parasites could not be eradicated because they developed resistance against the most widely used and affordable drugs of that time. Today, cases of malaria infections are on the rise and have reached record numbers. This review gives a short description of the malaria disease, briefly addresses the history of antimalarial drug development, and focuses on drugs currently available for malaria therapy. The present knowledge regarding their mode of action and the mechanisms of resistance are explained, as are the attempts made by numerous research groups to overcome the resistance problem within classes of existing drugs and in some novel classes. Finally, this review covers all classes of antimalarials for which at least one drug candidate is in clinical development. Antimalarial agents that are solely in early development stages will be addressed in a separate review.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ACS Omega
                ACS Omega
                ao
                acsodf
                ACS Omega
                American Chemical Society
                2470-1343
                04 November 2021
                16 November 2021
                : 6
                : 45
                : 30790-30799
                Affiliations
                []Medicinal & Process Chemistry Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute , Sector 10, Jankipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow 226031, India
                []Department of Chemistry, Mohanlal Sukhadia University , Udaipur 313001, India
                [§ ]Parasitology Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute , Sector 10, Jankipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow 226031, India
                []Department of Chemistry, Banasthali University , Banasthali Newai 304022, Rajasthan, India
                Author notes
                Article
                10.1021/acsomega.1c05041
                8600630
                ed01a9c8-1af7-4ed4-b1de-1928f55993c1
                © 2021 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society

                Permits non-commercial access and re-use, provided that author attribution and integrity are maintained; but does not permit creation of adaptations or other derivative works ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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