20
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      The extended evolutionary synthesis: its structure, assumptions and predictions

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Scientific activities take place within the structured sets of ideas and assumptions that define a field and its practices. The conceptual framework of evolutionary biology emerged with the Modern Synthesis in the early twentieth century and has since expanded into a highly successful research program to explore the processes of diversification and adaptation. Nonetheless, the ability of that framework satisfactorily to accommodate the rapid advances in developmental biology, genomics and ecology has been questioned. We review some of these arguments, focusing on literatures (evo-devo, developmental plasticity, inclusive inheritance and niche construction) whose implications for evolution can be interpreted in two ways—one that preserves the internal structure of contemporary evolutionary theory and one that points towards an alternative conceptual framework. The latter, which we label the 'extended evolutionary synthesis' (EES), retains the fundaments of evolutionary theory, but differs in its emphasis on the role of constructive processes in development and evolution, and reciprocal portrayals of causation. In the EES, developmental processes, operating through developmental bias, inclusive inheritance and niche construction, share responsibility for the direction and rate of evolution, the origin of character variation and organism-environment complementarity. We spell out the structure, core assumptions and novel predictions of the EES, and show how it can be deployed to stimulate and advance research in those fields that study or use evolutionary biology.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 89

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Phenotypic plasticity's impacts on diversification and speciation.

          Phenotypic plasticity (the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple phenotypes in response to variation in the environment) is commonplace. Yet its evolutionary significance remains controversial, especially in regard to whether and how it impacts diversification and speciation. Here, we review recent theory on how plasticity promotes: (i) the origin of novel phenotypes, (ii) divergence among populations and species, (iii) the formation of new species and (iv) adaptive radiation. We also discuss the latest empirical support for each of these evolutionary pathways to diversification and identify potentially profitable areas for future research. Generally, phenotypic plasticity can play a largely underappreciated role in driving diversification and speciation. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Adaptation to an extraordinary environment by evolution of phenotypic plasticity and genetic assimilation.

             R Lande (2009)
            Adaptation to a sudden extreme change in environment, beyond the usual range of background environmental fluctuations, is analysed using a quantitative genetic model of phenotypic plasticity. Generations are discrete, with time lag tau between a critical period for environmental influence on individual development and natural selection on adult phenotypes. The optimum phenotype, and genotypic norms of reaction, are linear functions of the environment. Reaction norm elevation and slope (plasticity) vary among genotypes. Initially, in the average background environment, the character is canalized with minimum genetic and phenotypic variance, and no correlation between reaction norm elevation and slope. The optimal plasticity is proportional to the predictability of environmental fluctuations over time lag tau. During the first generation in the new environment the mean fitness suddenly drops and the mean phenotype jumps towards the new optimum phenotype by plasticity. Subsequent adaptation occurs in two phases. Rapid evolution of increased plasticity allows the mean phenotype to closely approach the new optimum. The new phenotype then undergoes slow genetic assimilation, with reduction in plasticity compensated by genetic evolution of reaction norm elevation in the original environment.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found

              The Units of Selection

                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
                Proc. R. Soc. B
                The Royal Society
                0962-8452
                1471-2954
                August 22 2015
                August 22 2015
                August 22 2015
                August 22 2015
                : 282
                : 1813
                : 20151019
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Biology, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife, UK
                [2 ]Edward Grey Institute, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
                [3 ]Department of Biology, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden
                [4 ]Department of Biology, Stanford University, Herrin Hall, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
                [5 ]School of Philosophy, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia
                [6 ]School of History, Philosophy, Political Science and International Relations, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand
                [7 ]Department of Theoretical Biology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
                [8 ]Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405-7107, USA
                [9 ]Cohn Institute for the History of Philosophy of Science and Ideas, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
                [10 ]Mansfield College, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
                Article
                10.1098/rspb.2015.1019
                26246559
                © 2015

                Comments

                Comment on this article