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      Reciprocal regulation of miR‐206 and IL‐6/STAT3 pathway mediates IL6‐induced gefitinib resistance in EGFR‐mutant lung cancer cells

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          Abstract

          Persistently activated IL‐6/STAT3 pathway promotes acquired resistance to targeted therapy with epidermal growth factor receptor‐tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR‐TKIs) in non–small‐cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. miR‐206 has been verified to be dysregulated and plays as a negative regulator in lung cancer. However, whether miR‐206 may overcome IL6‐induced gefitinib resistance in EGFR‐mutant lung cancer remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the role of miR‐206 in IL6‐induced gefitinib‐resistant EGFR‐mutated lung cancer cell lines. We showed that forced miR‐206 expression restored gefitinib sensitivity in IL6‐induced gefitinib‐resistant EGFR‐mutant lung cancer cells by inhibiting IL6/JAK1/STAT3 pathway. Specifically, mechanistic investigations revealed that miR‐206 blocked IL‐6/STAT3 signalling via directly targeting the 3'‐UTR of intracellular IL‐6 messenger RNA. Moreover, IL‐6 induced miR‐206 down‐regulation by reducing the cropping process of primary miR‐206 (pri‐miR‐206) into the Drosha/DGCR8 complex. Taken together, our findings reveal a direct role of miR‐206 in regulating IL‐6/STAT3 pathway and contrarily activated IL‐6/STAT3 signalling mediates the miR‐206 maturation process in gefitinib‐resistant EGFR‐mutant lung cancer cells.

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          Most cited references 44

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          Acquired resistance to TKIs in solid tumours: learning from lung cancer.

          The use of advanced molecular profiling to direct the use of targeted therapy, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) for patients with advanced-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), has revolutionized the treatment of this disease. However, acquired resistance, defined as progression after initial benefit, to targeted therapies inevitably occurs. This Review explores breakthroughs in the understanding and treatment of acquired resistance in NSCLC, focusing on EGFR mutant and ALK rearrangement-positive disease, which may be relevant across multiple different solid malignancies with oncogene-addicted subtypes. Mechanisms of acquired resistance may be pharmacological (that is, failure of delivery of the drug to its target) or biological, resulting from evolutionary selection on molecularly diverse tumours. A number of clinical approaches can maintain control of the disease in the acquired resistance setting, including the use of radiation to treat isolated areas of progression and adding or switching to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Furthermore, novel approaches that have already proven successful include the development of second-generation and third-generation inhibitors and the combination of some of these inhibitors with antibodies directed against the same target. With our increased understanding of the spectrum of acquired resistance, major changes in how we conduct clinical research in this setting are now underway.
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            Mutations in the EGFR kinase domain mediate STAT3 activation via IL-6 production in human lung adenocarcinomas.

            Persistently activated or tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) is found in 50% of lung adenocarcinomas. pSTAT3 is found in primary adenocarcinomas and cell lines harboring somatic-activating mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of EGFR. Treatment of cell lines with either an EGFR inhibitor or an src kinase inhibitor had no effect on pSTAT3 levels, whereas a pan-JAK inhibitor (P6) blocked activation of STAT3 and inhibited tumorigenesis. Cell lines expressing these persistently activated mutant EGFRs also produced high IL-6 levels, and blockade of the IL-6/gp130/JAK pathway led to a decrease in pSTAT3 levels. In addition, reduction of IL-6 levels by RNA interference led to a decrease in tumorigenesis. Introduction of persistently activated EGFR into immortalized breast epithelial cells led to tumorigenesis, IL-6 expression, and STAT3 activation, all of which could be inhibited with P6 or gp130 blockade. Furthermore, inhibition of EGFR activity in multiple cell lines partially blocked transcription of IL-6 and concurrently decreased production and release of IL-6. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis revealed a positive correlation between pSTAT3 and IL-6 positivity in primary lung adenocarcinomas. Therefore, mutant EGFR could activate the gp130/JAK/STAT3 pathway by means of IL-6 upregulation in primary human lung adenocarcinomas, making this pathway a potential target for cancer treatment.
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              MicroRNAs regulate critical genes associated with multiple myeloma pathogenesis.

              Progress in understanding the biology of multiple myeloma (MM), a plasma cell malignancy, has been slow. The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small noncoding RNAs targeting multiple mRNAs, has revealed a new level of gene expression regulation. To determine whether miRNAs play a role in the malignant transformation of plasma cells (PCs), we have used both miRNA microarrays and quantitative real time PCR to profile miRNA expression in MM-derived cell lines (n = 49) and CD138+ bone marrow PCs from subjects with MM (n = 16), monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) (n = 6), and normal donors (n = 6). We identified overexpression of miR-21, miR-106b approximately 25 cluster, miR-181a and b in MM and MGUS samples with respect to healthy PCs. Selective up-regulation of miR-32 and miR-17 approximately 92 cluster was identified in MM subjects and cell lines but not in MGUS subjects or healthy PCs. Furthermore, two miRNAs, miR-19a and 19b, that are part of the miR-17 approximately 92 cluster, were shown to down regulate expression of SOCS-1, a gene frequently silenced in MM that plays a critical role as inhibitor of IL-6 growth signaling. We also identified p300-CBP-associated factor, a gene involved in p53 regulation, as a bona fide target of the miR106b approximately 25 cluster, miR-181a and b, and miR-32. Xenograft studies using human MM cell lines treated with miR-19a and b, and miR-181a and b antagonists resulted in significant suppression of tumor growth in nude mice. In summary, we have described a MM miRNA signature, which includes miRNAs that modulate the expression of proteins critical to myeloma pathogenesis.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                ztguo@sdu.edu.cn
                Journal
                J Cell Mol Med
                J. Cell. Mol. Med
                10.1111/(ISSN)1582-4934
                JCMM
                Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                1582-1838
                1582-4934
                10 September 2019
                November 2019
                : 23
                : 11 ( doiID: 10.1111/jcmm.v23.11 )
                : 7331-7341
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Department of Pathology, Qilu Hospital Shandong University Jinan China
                [ 2 ] Department of Pathology Qingdao Municipal Hospital Qingdao China
                [ 3 ] Department of Pathology The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University Qingdao China
                [ 4 ] Department of Pathology The Third People's Hospital of Qingdao Qingdao China
                [ 5 ] Center Laboratory Qingdao Municipal Hospital Qingdao China
                [ 6 ] Department of Pathology, School of Basic Medical Sciences Shandong University Jinan China
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence

                Tingguo Zhang, Department of Pathology, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, NO.44, Wenhuaxi Road, Jinan City, Shandong Province, China.

                Email: ztguo@ 123456sdu.edu.cn

                Article
                JCMM14592
                10.1111/jcmm.14592
                6815809
                31507089
                © 2019 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 0, Pages: 11, Words: 6142
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: Qingdao Science and Technology Bureau
                Award ID: 13-1-4-129-jch
                Categories
                Original Article
                Original Articles
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                jcmm14592
                November 2019
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:5.7.0 mode:remove_FC converted:28.10.2019

                Molecular medicine

                gefitinib, il‐6, mir‐206, stat3

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