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      Establishment of an Efficient and Flexible Genetic Manipulation Platform Based on a Fosmid Library for Rapid Generation of Recombinant Pseudorabies Virus

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          Abstract

          Conventional genetic engineering of pseudorabies virus (PRV) is essentially based on homologous recombination or bacterial artificial chromosome. However, these techniques require multiple plaque purification, which is labor-intensive and time-consuming. The aim of the present study was to develop an efficient, direct, and flexible genetic manipulation platform for PRV. To this end, the PRV genomic DNA was extracted from purified PRV virions and sheared into approximately 30–45-kb DNA fragments. After end-blunting and phosphorylation, the DNA fragments were separated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, the recovered DNA fragments were inserted into the cloning-ready fosmids. The fosmids were then transformed into Escherichia coli and selected clones were end-sequenced for full-length genome assembly. Overlapping fosmid combinations that cover the complete genome of PRV were directly transfected into Vero cells and PRV was rescued. The morphology and one-step growth curve of the rescued virus were indistinguishable from those of the parent virus. Based on this system, a recombinant PRV expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein fused with the VP26 gene was generated within 2 weeks, and this recombinant virus can be used to observe the capsid transport in axons. The new genetic manipulation platform developed in the present study is an efficient, flexible, and stable method for the study of the PRV life cycle and development of novel vaccines.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Molecular biology of pseudorabies virus: impact on neurovirology and veterinary medicine.

          Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a herpesvirus of swine, a member of the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily, and the etiological agent of Aujeszky's disease. This review describes the contributions of PRV research to herpesvirus biology, neurobiology, and viral pathogenesis by focusing on (i) the molecular biology of PRV, (ii) model systems to study PRV pathogenesis and neurovirulence, (iii) PRV transsynaptic tracing of neuronal circuits, and (iv) veterinary aspects of pseudorabies disease. The structure of the enveloped infectious particle, the content of the viral DNA genome, and a step-by-step overview of the viral replication cycle are presented. PRV infection is initiated by binding to cellular receptors to allow penetration into the cell. After reaching the nucleus, the viral genome directs a regulated gene expression cascade that culminates with viral DNA replication and production of new virion constituents. Finally, progeny virions self-assemble and exit the host cells. Animal models and neuronal culture systems developed for the study of PRV pathogenesis and neurovirulence are discussed. PRV serves asa self-perpetuating transsynaptic tracer of neuronal circuitry, and we detail the original studies of PRV circuitry mapping, the biology underlying this application, and the development of the next generation of tracer viruses. The basic veterinary aspects of pseudorabies management and disease in swine are discussed. PRV infection progresses from acute infection of the respiratory epithelium to latent infection in the peripheral nervous system. Sporadic reactivation from latency can transmit PRV to new hosts. The successful management of PRV disease has relied on vaccination, prevention, and testing.
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            Incorporation of the green fluorescent protein into the herpes simplex virus type 1 capsid.

             S Person,  P. Desai (1998)
            The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) UL35 open reading frame (ORF) encodes a 12-kDa capsid protein designated VP26. VP26 is located on the outer surface of the capsid specifically on the tips of the hexons that constitute the capsid shell. The bioluminescent jellyfish (Aequorea victoria) green fluorescent protein (GFP) was fused in frame with the UL35 ORF to generate a VP26-GFP fusion protein. This fusion protein was fluorescent and localized to distinct regions within the nuclei of transfected cells following infection with wild-type virus. The VP26-GFP marker was introduced into the HSV-1 (KOS) genome resulting in recombinant plaques that were fluorescent. A virus, designated K26GFP, was isolated and purified and was shown to grow as well as the wild-type virus in cell culture. An analysis of the intranuclear capsids formed in K26GFP-infected cells revealed that the fusion protein was incorporated into A, B, and C capsids. Furthermore, the fusion protein incorporated into the virion particle was fluorescent as judged by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis of infected cells in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. Cells infected with K26GFP exhibited a punctate nuclear fluorescence at early times in the replication cycle. At later times during infection a generalized cytoplasmic and nuclear fluorescence, including fluorescence at the cell membranes, was observed, confirming visually that the fusion protein was incorporated into intranuclear capsids and mature virions.
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              Pseudorabies Virus Variant in Bartha-K61–Vaccinated Pigs, China, 2012

              The widely used pseudorabies virus (PRV) Bartha-K61 vaccine has played a key role in the eradication of PRV. Since late 2011, however, a disease characterized by neurologic symptoms and a high number of deaths among newborn piglets has occurred among Bartha-K61–vaccinated pigs on many farms in China. Clinical samples from pigs on 15 farms in 6 provinces were examined. The PRV gE gene was detectable by PCR in all samples, and sequence analysis of the gE gene showed that all isolates belonged to a relatively independent cluster and contained 2 amino acid insertions. A PRV (named HeN1) was isolated and caused transitional fever in pigs. In protection assays, Bartha-K61 vaccine provided 100% protection against lethal challenge with SC (a classical PRV) but only 50% protection against 4 challenges with strain HeN1. The findings suggest that Bartha-K61 vaccine does not provide effective protection against PRV HeN1 infection.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Microbiol
                Front Microbiol
                Front. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-302X
                05 September 2018
                2018
                : 9
                Affiliations
                State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences , Harbin, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Bernard La Scola, Aix-Marseille Université, France

                Reviewed by: Akatsuki Saito, Osaka University, Japan; Takayuki Murata, Fujita Health University, Japan

                This article was submitted to Virology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology
                Article
                10.3389/fmicb.2018.02132
                6133995
                Copyright © 2018 Zhou, Abid, Yin, Wu, Teklue, Qiu and Sun.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 31, Pages: 10, Words: 0
                Categories
                Microbiology
                Original Research

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