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Retraction Note to: The complete mitochondrial genomes of two freshwater snails provide new protein-coding gene rearrangement models and phylogenetic implications

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      Physella acuta: atypical mitochondrial gene order among panpulmonates (Gastropoda)

      Mitochondrial (mt) sequences are frequently used for phylogenetic reconstruction and for identification of species of molluscs. This study expands the phylogenetic range of Hygrophila (Panpulmonata) for which such sequence data are available by characterizing the full mt genome of the invasive freshwater snail Physella acuta (Physidae). The mt genome sequences of two P. acuta isolates from Stubblefield Lake, New Mexico, USA, differed in length (14,490 vs 14,314 bp) and showed 11.49% sequence divergence, whereas ITS1 and ITS2 sequences from the nuclear genome differed by 1.75%. The mt gene order of P. acuta (cox1, P, nad6, nad5, nad1, D, F, cox2, Y, W, nad4L, C, Q, atp6, R, E, rrnS, M, T, cox3, I, nad2, K, V, rrnL, L1, A, cytb, G, H, L2, atp8, N, nad2, S1, S2, nad4) differs considerably from the relatively conserved gene order within Panpulmonata. Phylogenetic trees show that the 13 protein-encoding mt gene sequences (equivalent codons) of P. acuta group according to gastropod phylogeny, yet branch lengths and dN/dS ratios for P. acuta indicate elevated amino acid substitutions relative to other gastropods. This study indicates that mt sequences of P. acuta are phylogenetically informative despite a considerable intraspecific divergence and the atypical gene order in its mt genome.
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        Evaluation of protective efficacy induced by different heterologous prime-boost strategies encoding triosephosphate isomerase against Schistosoma japonicum in mice

        Background In China, schistosomiasis japonica is a predominant zoonotic disease, and animal reservoir hosts in the environment largely sustain infections. The development of transmission-blocking veterinary vaccines is urgently needed for the prevention and efficient control of schistosomiasis. Heterologous prime-boost strategy is more effective than traditional vaccination and homologous prime-boost strategies against multiple pathogens infection. In the present study, to further improve protective efficacy, we immunized mice with three types of heterologous prime-boost combinations based on our previously constructed vaccines that encode triosphate isomerase of Schistosoma japonicum, tested the specific immune responses, and evaluated the protective efficacy through challenge infection in mice. Methods DNA vaccine (pcDNA3.1-SjTPI.opt), adenoviral vectored vaccine (rAdV-SjTPI.opt), and recombinant protein vaccine (rSjTPI) were prepared and three types of heterologous prime-boost combinations, including DNA i.m. priming-rAdV i.m. boosting, rAdV i.m. priming-rAdV s.c. boosting, and rAdV i.m. priming-rSjTPI boosting strategies, were carried out. The specific immune responses and protective efficacies were evaluated in BALB/c mice Results Results show that different immune profiles and various levels of protective efficacy were elicited by using different heterologous prime-boost combinations. A synergistic effect was observed using the DNA i.m. priming-rAdV i.m. boosting strategy; however, its protective efficacy was similar to that of rAdV i.m. immunization. Conversely, an antagonistic effect was generated by using the rAd i.m. priming-s.c. boosting strategy. However, the strategy, with rAdV i.m. priming- rSjTPI s.c. boosting, generated the most optimal protective efficacy and worm or egg reduction rate reaching up to 70% in a mouse model. Conclusions A suitable immunization strategy, rAdV i.m. priming-rSjTPI boosting strategy, was developed, which elicits a high level of protective efficacy against Schistosoma japonicum infection in mice. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13071-017-2036-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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          Author and article information

          Affiliations
          ISNI 0000 0000 9413 3760, GRID grid.43308.3c, Key Laboratory of Tropical&Subtropical Fishery Resource Application & Cultivation, Ministry of Agriculture, , Pearl River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, ; Xingyu Road1, Guangzhou, 510380 China
          Contributors
          huyc22@163.com
          Journal
          Parasit Vectors
          Parasit Vectors
          Parasites & Vectors
          BioMed Central (London )
          1756-3305
          21 July 2017
          21 July 2017
          2017
          : 10
          28732528
          5522592
          2287
          10.1186/s13071-017-2287-1
          © The Author(s). 2017

          Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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          Retraction Note
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          © The Author(s) 2017

          Parasitology

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