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      • Record: found
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      Review of the Isolation, Characterization, Biological Function, and Multifarious Therapeutic Approaches of Exosomes

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          Abstract

          Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that contain a specific composition of proteins, lipids, RNA, and DNA. They are derived from endocytic membranes and can transfer signals to recipient cells, thus mediating a novel mechanism of cell-to-cell communication. They are also thought to be involved in cellular waste disposal. Exosomes play significant roles in various biological functions, including the transfer of biomolecules such as RNA, proteins, enzymes, and lipids and the regulation of numerous physiological and pathological processes in various diseases. Because of these properties, they are considered to be promising biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of various diseases and may contribute to the development of minimally invasive diagnostics and next generation therapies. The biocompatible nature of exosomes could enhance the stability and efficacy of imaging probes and therapeutics. Due to their potential use in clinical applications, exosomes have attracted much research attention on their roles in health and disease. To explore the use of exosomes in the biomedical arena, it is essential that the basic molecular mechanisms behind the transport and function of these vesicles are well-understood. Herein, we discuss the history, biogenesis, release, isolation, characterization, and biological functions of exosomes, as well as the factors influencing their biogenesis and their technical and biological challenges. We conclude this review with a discussion on the future perspectives of exosomes.

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          Exosome-mediated transfer of mRNAs and microRNAs is a novel mechanism of genetic exchange between cells.

          Exosomes are vesicles of endocytic origin released by many cells. These vesicles can mediate communication between cells, facilitating processes such as antigen presentation. Here, we show that exosomes from a mouse and a human mast cell line (MC/9 and HMC-1, respectively), as well as primary bone marrow-derived mouse mast cells, contain RNA. Microarray assessments revealed the presence of mRNA from approximately 1300 genes, many of which are not present in the cytoplasm of the donor cell. In vitro translation proved that the exosome mRNAs were functional. Quality control RNA analysis of total RNA derived from exosomes also revealed presence of small RNAs, including microRNAs. The RNA from mast cell exosomes is transferable to other mouse and human mast cells. After transfer of mouse exosomal RNA to human mast cells, new mouse proteins were found in the recipient cells, indicating that transferred exosomal mRNA can be translated after entering another cell. In summary, we show that exosomes contain both mRNA and microRNA, which can be delivered to another cell, and can be functional in this new location. We propose that this RNA is called "exosomal shuttle RNA" (esRNA).
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            Immunity, inflammation, and cancer.

            Inflammatory responses play decisive roles at different stages of tumor development, including initiation, promotion, malignant conversion, invasion, and metastasis. Inflammation also affects immune surveillance and responses to therapy. Immune cells that infiltrate tumors engage in an extensive and dynamic crosstalk with cancer cells, and some of the molecular events that mediate this dialog have been revealed. This review outlines the principal mechanisms that govern the effects of inflammation and immunity on tumor development and discusses attractive new targets for cancer therapy and prevention. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Circulating microRNAs as stable blood-based markers for cancer detection.

              Improved approaches for the detection of common epithelial malignancies are urgently needed to reduce the worldwide morbidity and mortality caused by cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small ( approximately 22 nt) regulatory RNAs that are frequently dysregulated in cancer and have shown promise as tissue-based markers for cancer classification and prognostication. We show here that miRNAs are present in human plasma in a remarkably stable form that is protected from endogenous RNase activity. miRNAs originating from human prostate cancer xenografts enter the circulation, are readily measured in plasma, and can robustly distinguish xenografted mice from controls. This concept extends to cancer in humans, where serum levels of miR-141 (a miRNA expressed in prostate cancer) can distinguish patients with prostate cancer from healthy controls. Our results establish the measurement of tumor-derived miRNAs in serum or plasma as an important approach for the blood-based detection of human cancer.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cells
                Cells
                cells
                Cells
                MDPI
                2073-4409
                03 April 2019
                April 2019
                : 8
                : 4
                Affiliations
                Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biotechnology, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-Dong, Gwangin-gu, Seoul 05029, Korea; pocachippo@ 123456gmail.com (M.-H.K.); muniyandij@ 123456yahoo.com (M.J.); qasimattock@ 123456gmail.com (M.Q.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: gsangiliyandi@ 123456yahoo.com (S.G.); jhkim541@ 123456konkuk.ac.kr (J.-H.K.); Tel.: +82-2-450-0581 (S.G.); +82-2-450-3687 (J.-H.K.); Fax: +82-2-544-4645 (S.G. & J.-H.K.)
                Article
                cells-08-00307
                10.3390/cells8040307
                6523673
                30987213
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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