• Record: found
  • Abstract: found
  • Article: found
Is Open Access

Salinity Effects on Strategies of Glycogen Utilization in Livers of Euryhaline Milkfish (Chanos chanos) under Hypothermal Stress

Read this article at

      There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


      The fluctuation of temperature affects many physiological responses in ectothermic organisms, including feed intake, growth, reproduction, and behavior. Changes in environmental temperatures affect the acquisition of energy, whereas hepatic glycogen plays a central role in energy supply for the homeostasis of the entire body. Glycogen phosphorylase (GP), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in glycogenolysis, is also an indicator of environmental stress. Here, we examined the effects of salinity on glycogen metabolism in milkfish livers under cold stress. A reduction of feed intake was observed in both freshwater (FW) and seawater (SW) milkfish under cold adaptation. At normal temperature (28°C), compared to the FW milkfish, the SW milkfish exhibited greater mRNA abundance of the liver isoform of GP ( Ccpygl), higher GP activity, and less glycogen content in the livers. Upon hypothermal (18°C) stress, hepatic Ccpygl mRNA expression of FW milkfish surged at 3 h, declined at 6 and 12 h, increased again at 24 h, and increased significantly after 96 h. Increases in GP protein, GP activity, and the phosphorylation state and the breakdown of glycogen were also found in FW milkfish livers after 12 h of exposure at 18°C. Conversely, the Ccpygl transcript levels in SW milkfish were downregulated after 1 h of exposure at 18°C, whereas the protein abundance of GP, GP activity, and glycogen content were not significantly altered. Taken together, under 18°C cold stress, FW milkfish exhibited an acute response with the breakdown of hepatic glycogen for maintaining energy homeostasis of the entire body, whereas no change was observed in the hepatic glycogen content and GP activity of SW milkfish because of their greater tolerance to cold conditions.

      Related collections

      Most cited references 62

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) Method.

       K Livak,  T Schmittgen (2001)
      The two most commonly used methods to analyze data from real-time, quantitative PCR experiments are absolute quantification and relative quantification. Absolute quantification determines the input copy number, usually by relating the PCR signal to a standard curve. Relative quantification relates the PCR signal of the target transcript in a treatment group to that of another sample such as an untreated control. The 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method is a convenient way to analyze the relative changes in gene expression from real-time quantitative PCR experiments. The purpose of this report is to present the derivation, assumptions, and applications of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method. In addition, we present the derivation and applications of two variations of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method that may be useful in the analysis of real-time, quantitative PCR data. Copyright 2001 Elsevier Science (USA).
        • Record: found
        • Abstract: found
        • Article: not found

        Oxygen- and capacity-limitation of thermal tolerance: a matrix for integrating climate-related stressor effects in marine ecosystems.

         Hans Pörtner (2010)
        The concept of oxygen- and capacity-dependent thermal tolerance in aquatic ectotherms has successfully explained climate-induced effects of rising temperatures on species abundance in the field. Oxygen supply to tissues and the resulting aerobic performance characters thus form a primary link between organismal fitness and its role and functioning at the ecosystem level. The thermal window of performance in water breathers matches their window of aerobic scope. Loss of performance reflects the earliest level of thermal stress, caused by hypoxaemia and the progressive mismatch of oxygen supply and demand at the borders of the thermal envelope. Oxygen deficiency elicits the transition to passive tolerance and associated systemic and cellular stress signals like hormonal responses or oxidative stress as well as the use of protection mechanisms like heat shock proteins at thermal extremes. Thermal acclimatization between seasons or adaptation to a climate regime involves shifting thermal windows and adjusting window widths. The need to specialize on a limited temperature range results from temperature-dependent trade-offs at several hierarchical levels, from molecular structure to whole-organism functioning, and may also support maximized energy efficiency. Various environmental factors like CO(2) (ocean acidification) and hypoxia interact with these principal relationships. Existing knowledge suggests that these factors elicit metabolic depression supporting passive tolerance to thermal extremes. However, they also exacerbate hypoxaemia, causing a narrowing of thermal performance windows and prematurely leading the organism to the limits of its thermal acclimation capacity. The conceptual analysis suggests that the relationships between energy turnover, the capacities of activity and other functions and the width of thermal windows may lead to an integrative understanding of specialization on climate and, as a thermal matrix, of sensitivity to climate change and the factors involved. Such functional relationships might also relate to climate-induced changes in species interactions and, thus, community responses at the ecosystem level.
          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: found
          Is Open Access

          Antioxidant responses and cellular adjustments to oxidative stress

          Redox biological reactions are now accepted to bear the Janus faceted feature of promoting both physiological signaling responses and pathophysiological cues. Endogenous antioxidant molecules participate in both scenarios. This review focuses on the role of crucial cellular nucleophiles, such as glutathione, and their capacity to interact with oxidants and to establish networks with other critical enzymes such as peroxiredoxins. We discuss the importance of the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway as an example of a transcriptional antioxidant response and we summarize transcriptional routes related to redox activation. As examples of pathophysiological cellular and tissular settings where antioxidant responses are major players we highlight endoplasmic reticulum stress and ischemia reperfusion. Topologically confined redox-mediated post-translational modifications of thiols are considered important molecular mechanisms mediating many antioxidant responses, whereas redox-sensitive microRNAs have emerged as key players in the posttranscriptional regulation of redox-mediated gene expression. Understanding such mechanisms may provide the basis for antioxidant-based therapeutic interventions in redox-related diseases.

            Author and article information

            1Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University , Taichung, Taiwan
            2Department of Oceanography, National Sun Yat-sen University , Kaohsiung, Taiwan
            3Mariculture Research Center, Fisheries Research Institute, Council of Agriculture , Yulin, Taiwan
            4Agricultural Biotechnology Center, National Chung Hsing University , Taichung, Taiwan
            Author notes

            Edited by: Leonardo Julián Magnoni, Centro Interdisciplinar de Pesquisa Marine e Ambiental (CIIMAR), Portugal

            Reviewed by: Ivan Viegas, University of Coimbra, Portugal; Juan Antonio Martos-Sitcha, Institute of Aquaculture Torre de la Sal (CSIC), Spain

            *Correspondence: Tsung-Han Lee thlee@

            This article was submitted to Aquatic Physiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Physiology

            Front Physiol
            Front Physiol
            Front. Physiol.
            Frontiers in Physiology
            Frontiers Media S.A.
            12 February 2018
            : 9
            5816346 10.3389/fphys.2018.00081
            Copyright © 2018 Chang, Huang, Yeh, Tang, Hwang and Lee.

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

            Figures: 7, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 62, Pages: 13, Words: 8747
            Original Research


            Comment on this article