The focus of this paper is the conversion of radiocarbon ages to calibrated (cal) ages for the interval 24,000–0 cal BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950), based upon a sample set of dendrochronologically dated tree rings, uranium-thorium dated corals, and varve-counted marine sediment. The14C age–cal age information, produced by many laboratories, is converted to Δ14C profiles and calibration curves, for the atmosphere as well as the oceans. We discuss offsets in measuredl4C ages and the errors therein, regional14C age differences, tree–coral14C age comparisons and the time dependence of marine reservoir ages, and evaluate decadalvs. single-year14C results. Changes in oceanic deepwater circulation, especially for the 16,000–11,000 cal BP interval, are reflected in the Δ14C values of INTCAL98.