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      An exploration of the breastfeeding behaviors of women after cesarean section: A qualitative study

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          Abstract

          Objectives

          To explore the factors affecting breastfeeding behaviors in women after cesarean section.

          Methods

          This is a qualitative study that used a phenomenological approach. This study used individual face-to-face interviews with 19 women who underwent a cesarean section in a Women and Children’s Hospital in China between July to September 2019. Information saturation was used to determine sample size. Data were analyzed using a thematic content analysis method. Themes were developed based on the theory of planned behavior.

          Results

          Thirteen (68.42%) had a planned cesarean section, and six (31.58%) cesarean sections were unplanned or emergent. Three major themes emerged: ambivalent attitude about breastfeeding, motivation to comply with the traditional cultural norms, and barriers and challenges. The motivating factors for breastfeeding after cesarean sections included perceived benefits of human milk, support from healthcare professionals, and responsibility for breastfeeding. The challenges for breastfeeding after cesarean sections included physical discomfort, knowledge and skills deficit of breastfeeding, lactation deficiency, and lack of knowledge and coping skills in managing their depressive mood after cesarean sections. There were a couple of neutral factors, such as the influences of family and peers. These factors could influence women either positively as facilitators or negatively as barriers.

          Conclusions

          The findings can offer valuable information for healthcare professionals to help women breastfeed after cesarean sections. To promote women’s breastfeeding behaviors after cesarean sections, it is necessary to change women’s attitudes, belief systems, and the external environments and help them become more confident.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ): a 32-item checklist for interviews and focus groups.

           A Tong,  P SAINSBURY,  J. Craig (2007)
          Qualitative research explores complex phenomena encountered by clinicians, health care providers, policy makers and consumers. Although partial checklists are available, no consolidated reporting framework exists for any type of qualitative design. To develop a checklist for explicit and comprehensive reporting of qualitative studies (in depth interviews and focus groups). We performed a comprehensive search in Cochrane and Campbell Protocols, Medline, CINAHL, systematic reviews of qualitative studies, author or reviewer guidelines of major medical journals and reference lists of relevant publications for existing checklists used to assess qualitative studies. Seventy-six items from 22 checklists were compiled into a comprehensive list. All items were grouped into three domains: (i) research team and reflexivity, (ii) study design and (iii) data analysis and reporting. Duplicate items and those that were ambiguous, too broadly defined and impractical to assess were removed. Items most frequently included in the checklists related to sampling method, setting for data collection, method of data collection, respondent validation of findings, method of recording data, description of the derivation of themes and inclusion of supporting quotations. We grouped all items into three domains: (i) research team and reflexivity, (ii) study design and (iii) data analysis and reporting. The criteria included in COREQ, a 32-item checklist, can help researchers to report important aspects of the research team, study methods, context of the study, findings, analysis and interpretations.
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            The theory of planned behavior

             Icek Ajzen (1991)
            Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179-211
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              The qualitative content analysis process.

              This paper is a description of inductive and deductive content analysis. Content analysis is a method that may be used with either qualitative or quantitative data and in an inductive or deductive way. Qualitative content analysis is commonly used in nursing studies but little has been published on the analysis process and many research books generally only provide a short description of this method. When using content analysis, the aim was to build a model to describe the phenomenon in a conceptual form. Both inductive and deductive analysis processes are represented as three main phases: preparation, organizing and reporting. The preparation phase is similar in both approaches. The concepts are derived from the data in inductive content analysis. Deductive content analysis is used when the structure of analysis is operationalized on the basis of previous knowledge. Inductive content analysis is used in cases where there are no previous studies dealing with the phenomenon or when it is fragmented. A deductive approach is useful if the general aim was to test a previous theory in a different situation or to compare categories at different time periods.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Int J Nurs Sci
                Int J Nurs Sci
                International Journal of Nursing Sciences
                Chinese Nursing Association
                2096-6296
                2352-0132
                20 July 2020
                10 October 2020
                20 July 2020
                : 7
                : 4
                : 419-426
                Affiliations
                [a ]School of Nursing of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong, China
                [b ]Qingdao Women and Children’s Hospital, Qingdao, Shandong, China
                [c ]College of Nursing at East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. hlbygl@ 123456163.com
                Article
                S2352-0132(20)30117-4
                10.1016/j.ijnss.2020.07.008
                7644566
                © 2020 The authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of the Chinese Nursing Association.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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