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      Olinciguat, an Oral sGC Stimulator, Exhibits Diverse Pharmacology Across Preclinical Models of Cardiovascular, Metabolic, Renal, and Inflammatory Disease

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          Abstract

          Nitric oxide (NO)-soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)-cyclic 3',5' GMP (cGMP) signaling plays a central role in regulation of diverse processes including smooth muscle relaxation, inflammation, and fibrosis. sGC is activated by the short-lived physiologic mediator NO. sGC stimulators are small-molecule compounds that directly bind to sGC to enhance NO-mediated cGMP signaling. Olinciguat, (R)-3,3,3-trifluoro-2-(((5-fluoro-2-(1-(2-fluorobenzyl)-5-(isoxazol-3-yl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)methyl)-2-hydroxypropanamide, is a new sGC stimulator currently in Phase 2 clinical development. To understand the potential clinical utility of olinciguat, we studied its pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and pharmacologic effects in preclinical models. Olinciguat relaxed human vascular smooth muscle and was a potent inhibitor of vascular smooth muscle proliferation in vitro. These antiproliferative effects were potentiated by the phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor tadalafil, which did not inhibit vascular smooth muscle proliferation on its own. Olinciguat was orally bioavailable and predominantly cleared by the liver in rats. In a rat whole body autoradiography study, olinciguat-derived radioactivity in most tissues was comparable to plasma levels, indicating a balanced distribution between vascular and extravascular compartments. Olinciguat was explored in rodent models to study its effects on the vasculature, the heart, the kidneys, metabolism, and inflammation. Olinciguat reduced blood pressure in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Olinciguat was cardioprotective in the Dahl rat salt-sensitive hypertensive heart failure model. In the rat ZSF1 model of diabetic nephropathy and metabolic syndrome, olinciguat was renoprotective and associated with lower circulating glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides. In a mouse TNFα-induced inflammation model, olinciguat treatment was associated with lower levels of endothelial and leukocyte-derived soluble adhesion molecules. The pharmacological features of olinciguat suggest that it may have broad therapeutic potential and that it may be suited for diseases that have both vascular and extravascular pathologies.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Nitric oxide: an endogenous modulator of leukocyte adhesion.

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            Structure and regulation of soluble guanylate cyclase.

            Nitric oxide (NO) is an essential signaling molecule in biological systems. In mammals, the diatomic gas is critical to the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway as it functions as the primary activator of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). NO is synthesized from l-arginine and oxygen (O(2)) by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Once produced, NO rapidly diffuses across cell membranes and binds to the heme cofactor of sGC. sGC forms a stable complex with NO and carbon monoxide (CO), but not with O(2). The binding of NO to sGC leads to significant increases in cGMP levels. The second messenger then directly modulates phosphodiesterases (PDEs), ion-gated channels, or cGMP-dependent protein kinases to regulate physiological functions, including vasodilation, platelet aggregation, and neurotransmission. Many studies are focused on elucidating the molecular mechanism of sGC activation and deactivation with a goal of therapeutic intervention in diseases involving the NO/cGMP-signaling pathway. This review summarizes the current understanding of sGC structure and regulation as well as recent developments in NO signaling.
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              Molecular mechanisms of diabetic renal hypertrophy.

               Paul Wolf,  F Ziyadeh (1999)
              Altered growth of renal cells is one of the early abnormalities detected after the onset of diabetes. Cell culture studies whereby renal cells are exposed to high glucose concentrations have provided a considerable amount of insight into mechanisms of growth. In the glomerular compartment, there is a very early and self-limited proliferation of mesangial cells with subsequent hypertrophy, whereas proximal tubular cells primarily undergo hypertrophy. There is overwhelming evidence from in vivo and cell culture studies that induction of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) system mediates the actions of high ambient glucose and that this system is pivotal for the hypertrophy of mesangial and tubular cells. Other factors such as hemodynamic forces, protein glycation products, and several mediators (for example, angiotensin II, endothelin-1, thromboxane, and platelet-derived growth factor) may further amplify the synthesis of TGF-beta and/or the expression of its receptors in the diabetic state. Cellular hypertrophy can be characterized by cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. The molecular mechanism arresting mesangial cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle is the induction of cyclin-dependent kinase (CdK) inhibitors such as p27Kip1 and p21, which bind to and inactivate cyclin-CdK complexes responsible for G1-phase exit. High-glucose-induced activation of protein kinase C and stimulated TGF-beta expression appear to be essential for stimulated expression of p27Kip1. In addition, a decreased turnover of protein caused by the inhibition of proteases contributes to hypertrophy. The development of irreversible renal changes in diabetes mellitus such as glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis is always preceded by the early hypertrophic processes in the glomerular and the tubular compartments. It may still be debated whether diabetic renal hypertrophy will inevitably lead to irreversible fibrotic changes in the absence of other factors such as altered intraglomerular hemodynamics and genetic predisposition. Nevertheless, understanding cellular growth on a molecular level may help design a novel therapeutic approach to prevent or treat diabetic nephropathy effectively.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Pharmacol
                Front Pharmacol
                Front. Pharmacol.
                Frontiers in Pharmacology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1663-9812
                08 April 2020
                2020
                : 11
                Affiliations
                1Research and Development, Cyclerion Therapeutics , Cambridge, MA, United States
                2Research and Development, Ironwood Pharmaceuticals , Boston, MA, United States
                Author notes

                Edited by: Andres Trostchansky, University of the Republic, Uruguay

                Reviewed by: Fabiola Zakia Mónica, Campinas State University, Brazil; Valentina Vellecco, University of Naples Federico II, Italy

                *Correspondence: Daniel P. Zimmer, dan.p.zimmer@ 123456gmail.com ; Juli E. Jones, jjones@ 123456cyclerion.com

                This article was submitted to Experimental Pharmacology and Drug Discovery, a section of the journal Frontiers in Pharmacology

                Article
                10.3389/fphar.2020.00419
                7156612
                Copyright © 2020 Zimmer, Shea, Tobin, Tchernychev, Germano, Sykes, Banijamali, Jacobson, Bernier, Sarno, Carvalho, Chien, Graul, Buys, Jones, Wakefield, Price, Chickering, Milne, Currie and Masferrer

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 10, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 39, Pages: 18, Words: 11805
                Categories
                Pharmacology
                Original Research

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