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      Essential Mineral Intake During Pregnancy and Its Association With Maternal Health and Birth Outcomes in South East Queensland, Australia

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          Abstract

          Micronutrient supplements are often recommended during pregnancy, yet their role and necessity remain poorly understood in the Australian population. This study aimed to determine the essential mineral intake of a population of pregnant women in South East Queensland and investigate the effects of supplements on their micronutrient status and birth outcomes. Women completing the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test at two South East Queensland hospitals between 180 and 210 days gestation provided fasting blood samples and dietary data using the Maternal Outcomes and Nutrition Tool (n = 127). Birth outcomes were sourced from medical records. Serum elemental profiles were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. Intake of 8 essential minerals was compared with Australian dietary recommendations; matched serum mineral levels were compared with the current Queensland pregnancy reference ranges. Data were examined using cross-sectional cohort design and independent sample t-tests. Supplement use had no significant influence on serum values of trace elements or the incidence of hypertensive disorders, gestational diabetes, preterm birth or infant birthweight. Dietary selenium, zinc and iodine were significantly higher in women birthing beyond 41 completed weeks; selenium ( P = .026) and zinc ( P = .034) both made unique contributions to the regression models when controlling for confounders. Women exhibited adequate to excessive serum micronutrient levels compared with pregnancy reference ranges, a finding consistent with dietary intake calculations. Data suggest that excessive essential mineral intake contributed to prolonged pregnancy in this cohort, supporting previous studies in this population. Further research is required to determine individual needs and eliminate the potential for harm before recommending pregnancy supplements.

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          Most cited references 47

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          Reproducibility and validity of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire.

          The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility and validity of a 61-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire used in a large prospective study among women. This form was administered twice to 173 participants at an interval of approximately one year (1980-1981), and four one-week diet records for each subject were collected during that period. Intraclass correlation coefficients for nutrient intakes estimated by the one-week diet records (range = 0.41 for total vitamin A without supplements to 0.79 for vitamin B6 with supplements) were similar to those computed from the questionnaire (range = 0.49 for total vitamin A without supplements to 0.71 for sucrose), indicating that these methods were generally comparable with respect to reproducibility. With the exception of sucrose and total carbohydrate, nutrient intakes from the diet records tended to correlate more strongly with those computed from the questionnaire after adjustment for total caloric intake. Correlation coefficients between the mean calorie-adjusted intakes from the four one-week diet records and those from the questionnaire completed after the diet records ranged from 0.36 for vitamin A without supplements to 0.75 for vitamin C with supplements. Overall, 48% of subjects in the lowest quintile of calorie-adjusted intake computed from the diet records were also in the lowest questionnaire quintile, and 74% were in the lowest one of two questionnaire quintiles. Similarly, 49% of those in the highest diet record quintile were also in the highest questionnaire quintile, and 77% were in the highest one or two questionnaire quintiles. These data indicate that a simple self-administered dietary questionnaire can provide useful information about individual nutrient intakes over a one-year period.
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            Comparative validation of the Block, Willett, and National Cancer Institute food frequency questionnaires : the Eating at America's Table Study.

            Researchers at the National Cancer Institute developed a new cognitively based food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ). The Eating at America's Table Study sought to validate and compare the DHQ with the Block and Willett FFQs. Of 1,640 men and women recruited to participate from a nationally representative sample in 1997, 1,301 completed four telephone 24-hour recalls, one in each season. Participants were randomized to receive either a DHQ and Block FFQ or a DHQ and Willett FFQ. With a standard measurement error model, correlations for energy between estimated truth and the DHQ, Block FFQ, and Willett FFQ, respectively, were 0.48, 0.45, and 0.18 for women and 0.49, 0.45, and 0.21 for men. For 26 nutrients, correlations and attenuation coefficients were somewhat higher for the DHQ versus the Block FFQ, and both were better than the Willett FFQ in models unadjusted for energy. Energy adjustment increased correlations and attenuation coefficients for the Willett FFQ dramatically and for the DHQ and Block FFQ instruments modestly. The DHQ performed best overall. These data show that the DHQ and the Block FFQ are better at estimating absolute intakes than is the Willett FFQ but that, after energy adjustment, all three are more comparable for purposes of assessing diet-disease risk.
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              Subclinical hypothyroidism and pregnancy outcomes.

              Clinical thyroid dysfunction has been associated with pregnancy complications such as hypertension, preterm birth, low birth weight, placental abruption, and fetal death. The relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and pregnancy outcomes has not been well studied. We undertook this prospective thyroid screening study to evaluate pregnancy outcomes in women with elevated thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH) and normal free thyroxine levels. All women who presented to Parkland Hospital for prenatal care between November 1, 2000, and April 14, 2003, had thyroid screening using a chemiluminescent TSH assay. Women with TSH values at or above the 97.5th percentile for gestational age at screening and with free thyroxine more than 0.680 ng/dL were retrospectively identified with subclinical hypothyroidism. Pregnancy outcomes were compared with those in pregnant women with normal TSH values between the 5th and 95th percentiles. A total of 25,756 women underwent thyroid screening and were delivered of a singleton infant. There were 17,298 (67%) women enrolled for prenatal care at 20 weeks of gestation or less, and 404 (2.3%) of these were considered to have subclinical hypothyroidism. Pregnancies in women with subclinical hypothyroidism were 3 times more likely to be complicated by placental abruption (relative risk 3.0, 95% confidence interval 1.1-8.2). Preterm birth, defined as delivery at or before 34 weeks of gestation, was almost 2-fold higher in women with subclinical hypothyroidism (relative risk, 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.1-2.9). We speculate that the previously reported reduction in intelligence quotient of offspring of women with subclinical hypothyroidism may be related to the effects of prematurity. II-2.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nutr Metab Insights
                Nutr Metab Insights
                NMI
                spnmi
                Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
                SAGE Publications (Sage UK: London, England )
                1178-6388
                29 September 2019
                2019
                : 12
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Nursing and Midwifery, Griffith University, Meadowbrook, QLD, Australia
                [2 ]School of Medical Science, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Southport, QLD, Australia
                [3 ]School of Allied Health Sciences, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Southport, QLD, Australia
                [4 ]Judith Lumley Centre, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC, Australia
                Author notes
                Janelle M McAlpine, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Griffith University, Logan Campus, LO5, University Drive, Meadowbrook, QLD 4131, Australia. Email: j.mcalpine@ 123456griffith.edu.au
                Article
                10.1177_1178638819879444
                10.1177/1178638819879444
                6769211
                © The Author(s) 2019

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License ( http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages ( https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).

                Categories
                Original Research
                Custom metadata
                January-December 2019

                prolonged, australia, birth weight, micronutrients, pregnancy

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