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      Effect of LongRange™ eprinomectin on Anopheles arabiensis by feeding on calves treated with the drug

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          Abstract

          Background

          Misuse of long-lasting insecticidal nets together with resistance of vectors to most of the insecticides for indoor residual spraying and impregnated nets threaten malaria vector control interventions, requiring search for alternative control methods. Reports have shown that Anopheles mosquitoes die when they feed on endectocidal drugs used to treat humans and animals. A study was designed to investigate the efficacy of LongRange™ (eprinomectin 5%) on laboratory reared Anopheles arabiensis fed on treated calves.

          Methods

          Anopheles arabiensis from insectary colony was fed on three calves treated with therapeutic dose of LongRange™ eprinomectin (1 ml/50 kg) and on non-treated three other calves as control arm. For the feeding, mosquitoes were placed in paper cups covered with nylon cloth mesh and then allowed to feed on the necks of calves. Subsequently, mosquito survival, fecundity, egg hatchability, larval development and adult emergence were recorded. Data were entered and analysed by using SPSS version 20. The Kaplan–Meier survival analysis and independent sample t-test were used.

          Results

          All mosquitoes that fed on LongRange™ Eprinomectin treated calves died within 7 days following blood ingestion. The drug also slightly affected fecundity and hatchability of An. arabiensis.

          Conclusion

          Treating livestock with LongRange™ (eprinomectin 5%) may serve as a supplementary control method for zoophagic An. arabiensis.

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          Most cited references 41

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          Pyrethroid resistance in African anopheline mosquitoes: what are the implications for malaria control?

          The use of pyrethroid insecticides in malaria vector control has increased dramatically in the past decade through the scale up of insecticide treated net distribution programmes and indoor residual spraying campaigns. Inevitably, the major malaria vectors have developed resistance to these insecticides and the resistance alleles are spreading at an exceptionally rapid rate throughout Africa. Although substantial progress has been made on understanding the causes of pyrethroid resistance, remarkably few studies have focused on the epidemiological impact of resistance on current malaria control activities. As we move into the malaria eradication era, it is vital that the implications of insecticide resistance are understood and strategies to mitigate these effects are implemented. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Assessing the effects of temperature on the population of Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue.

            Dengue is a vector-borne disease transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. The incidence of dengue disease shows a clear dependence on seasonal variation. How does the temperature affect the incidence? We addressed this question indirectly by estimating the size of the A. aegypti population for different temperatures applying population dynamics theory. In order to achieve this objective we designed temperature-controlled experiments to assess the entomological parameters regarding the mosquito's life-cycle at different temperatures. By obtaining the mortality, transition and oviposition rates for different stages of the life-cycle of the mosquito we were able to calculate the basic offspring number Q(0), which is the capacity of vector reproduction and ultimately gives the size of the vector population.
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              The Effect of Temperature on Anopheles Mosquito Population Dynamics and the Potential for Malaria Transmission

              The parasites that cause malaria depend on Anopheles mosquitoes for transmission; because of this, mosquito population dynamics are a key determinant of malaria risk. Development and survival rates of both the Anopheles mosquitoes and the Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria depend on temperature, making this a potential driver of mosquito population dynamics and malaria transmission. We developed a temperature-dependent, stage-structured delayed differential equation model to better understand how climate determines risk. Including the full mosquito life cycle in the model reveals that the mosquito population abundance is more sensitive to temperature than previously thought because it is strongly influenced by the dynamics of the juvenile mosquito stages whose vital rates are also temperature-dependent. Additionally, the model predicts a peak in abundance of mosquitoes old enough to vector malaria at more accurate temperatures than previous models. Our results point to the importance of incorporating detailed vector biology into models for predicting the risk for vector borne diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +251 912 274 764 , aklilu.belay@yahoo.com
                Journal
                Malar J
                Malar. J
                Malaria Journal
                BioMed Central (London )
                1475-2875
                30 September 2019
                30 September 2019
                2019
                : 18
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1250 5688, GRID grid.7123.7, Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, , Addis Ababa University, ; Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1250 5688, GRID grid.7123.7, Department of Microbial, Cellular & Molecular Biology, College of Natural Sciences, , Addis Ababa University, ; Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
                [3 ]Abt Associates, PMI VectorLink Project in Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
                Article
                2964
                10.1186/s12936-019-2964-y
                6767632
                31564253
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: Addis Ababa University
                Award ID: Graduate Program Research Fund for 2015/16 Academic Year
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: MalTrial project of Norway
                Award ID: 220554
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Research
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2019

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