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      Validity and reliability of a field technique for sweat Na + and K + analysis during exercise in a hot‐humid environment

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          Abstract

          This study compared a field versus reference laboratory technique for extracting (syringe vs. centrifuge) and analyzing sweat [Na +] and [K +] (compact Horiba B‐722 and B‐731, HORIBA vs. ion chromatography, HPLC) collected with regional absorbent patches during exercise in a hot‐humid environment. Sweat samples were collected from seven anatomical sites on 30 athletes during 1‐h cycling in a heat chamber (33°C, 67% rh). Ten minutes into exercise, skin was cleaned/dried and two sweat patches were applied per anatomical site. After removal, one patch per site was centrifuged and sweat was analyzed with HORIBA in the heat chamber (CENTRIFUGE HORIBA) versus HPLC (CENTRIFUGE HPLC). Sweat from the second patch per site was extracted using a 5‐mL syringe and analyzed with HORIBA in the heat chamber (SYRINGE HORIBA) versus HPLC (SYRINGE HPLC). CENTRIFUGE HORIBA, SYRINGE HPLC, and SYRINGE HORIBA were highly related to CENTRIFUGE HPLC ([Na +]: ICC = 0.96, 0.94, and 0.93, respectively; [K +]: ICC = 0.87, 0.92, and 0.84, respectively), while mean differences from CENTRIFUGE HPLC were small but usually significant ([Na +]: 4.7 ± 7.9 mEql/L, −2.5 ± 9.3 mEq/L, 4.0 ± 10.9 mEq/L (all P < 0.001), respectively; [K +]: 0.44 ± 0.52 mEq/L ( P < 0.001), 0.01 ± 0.49 mEq/L ( P = 0.77), 0.50 ± 0.48 mEq/L ( P < 0.001), respectively). On the basis of typical error of the measurement results, sweat [Na +] and [K +] obtained with SYRINGE HORIBA falls within ±15.4 mEq/L and ±0.68 mEq/L, respectively, of CENTRIFUGE HPLC 95% of the time. The field (SYRINGE HORIBA) method of extracting and analyzing sweat from regional absorbent patches may be useful in obtaining sweat [Na +] when rapid estimates in a hot‐humid field setting are needed.

          Abstract

          This study compared a field versus reference laboratory technique for extracting (SYRINGE vs. CENTRIFUGE) and analyzing sweat [Na +] and [K +] (compact HORIBA B‐722 and B‐731 versus ion chromatography, HPLC) collected with regional absorbent patches during exercise in a hot‐humid environment. The HORIBA analyzers provided highly reliable test‐retest and day‐to‐day measurements of sweat [Na +] and [K +]. The 95% limit of agreement between the SYRINGE HORIBA field technique and the reference laboratory‐based CENTRIFUGE HPLC technique was ±15.4 mEq/L and ±0.68 mEq/L for [Na +] and [K +], respectively; which may be acceptable in a field‐testing context, when simply aiming to estimate electrolyte losses for the purpose of identifying athletes/workers at greater risk for large electrolyte losses.

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          Most cited references 16

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          American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and fluid replacement.

          This Position Stand provides guidance on fluid replacement to sustain appropriate hydration of individuals performing physical activity. The goal of prehydrating is to start the activity euhydrated and with normal plasma electrolyte levels. Prehydrating with beverages, in addition to normal meals and fluid intake, should be initiated when needed at least several hours before the activity to enable fluid absorption and allow urine output to return to normal levels. The goal of drinking during exercise is to prevent excessive (>2% body weight loss from water deficit) dehydration and excessive changes in electrolyte balance to avert compromised performance. Because there is considerable variability in sweating rates and sweat electrolyte content between individuals, customized fluid replacement programs are recommended. Individual sweat rates can be estimated by measuring body weight before and after exercise. During exercise, consuming beverages containing electrolytes and carbohydrates can provide benefits over water alone under certain circumstances. After exercise, the goal is to replace any fluid electrolyte deficit. The speed with which rehydration is needed and the magnitude of fluid electrolyte deficits will determine if an aggressive replacement program is merited.
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            American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exertional heat illness during training and competition.

            Exertional heat illness can affect athletes during high-intensity or long-duration exercise and result in withdrawal from activity or collapse during or soon after activity. These maladies include exercise associated muscle cramping, heat exhaustion, or exertional heatstroke. While certain individuals are more prone to collapse from exhaustion in the heat (i.e., not acclimatized, using certain medications, dehydrated, or recently ill), exertional heatstroke (EHS) can affect seemingly healthy athletes even when the environment is relatively cool. EHS is defined as a rectal temperature greater than 40 degrees C accompanied by symptoms or signs of organ system failure, most frequently central nervous system dysfunction. Early recognition and rapid cooling can reduce both the morbidity and mortality associated with EHS. The clinical changes associated with EHS can be subtle and easy to miss if coaches, medical personnel, and athletes do not maintain a high level of awareness and monitor at-risk athletes closely. Fatigue and exhaustion during exercise occur more rapidly as heat stress increases and are the most common causes of withdrawal from activity in hot conditions. When athletes collapse from exhaustion in hot conditions, the term heat exhaustion is often applied. In some cases, rectal temperature is the only discernable difference between severe heat exhaustion and EHS in on-site evaluations. Heat exhaustion will generally resolve with symptomatic care and oral fluid support. Exercise associated muscle cramping can occur with exhaustive work in any temperature range, but appears to be more prevalent in hot and humid conditions. Muscle cramping usually responds to rest and replacement of fluid and salt (sodium). Prevention strategies are essential to reducing the incidence of EHS, heat exhaustion, and exercise associated muscle cramping.
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              Fluid and fuel intake during exercise.

               Edward Coyle (2003)
              The amounts of water, carbohydrate and salt that athletes are advised to ingest during exercise are based upon their effectiveness in attenuating both fatigue as well as illness due to hyperthermia, dehydration or hyperhydration. When possible, fluid should be ingested at rates that most closely match sweating rate. When that is not possible or practical or sufficiently ergogenic, some athletes might tolerate body water losses amounting to 2% of body weight without significant risk to physical well-being or performance when the environment is cold (e.g. 5-10 degrees C) or temperate (e.g. 21-22 degrees C). However, when exercising in a hot environment ( > 30 degrees C), dehydration by 2% of body weight impairs absolute power production and predisposes individuals to heat injury. Fluid should not be ingested at rates in excess of sweating rate and thus body water and weight should not increase during exercise. Fatigue can be reduced by adding carbohydrate to the fluids consumed so that 30-60 g of rapidly absorbed carbohydrate are ingested throughout each hour of an athletic event. Furthermore, sodium should be included in fluids consumed during exercise lasting longer than 2 h or by individuals during any event that stimulates heavy sodium loss (more than 3-4 g of sodium). Athletes do not benefit by ingesting glycerol, amino acids or alleged precursors of neurotransmitter. Ingestion of other substances during exercise, with the possible exception of caffeine, is discouraged. Athletes will benefit the most by tailoring their individual needs for water, carbohydrate and salt to the specific challenges of their sport, especially considering the environment's impact on sweating and heat stress.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Physiol Rep
                Physiol Rep
                physreports
                phy2
                Physiological Reports
                Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
                2051-817X
                1 May 2014
                11 May 2014
                : 2
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Gatorade Sports Science Institute, Barrington, Illinois, USA
                Author notes
                CorrespondenceLindsay B. Baker, Gatorade Sports Science Institute, 617 W. Main St. Barrington, IL 60010, USATel: (847) 304‐2142Fax: (847) 304‐2043E‐mail: Lindsay.Baker@ 123456Pepsico.com
                Article
                phy212007
                10.14814/phy2.12007
                4098735
                24793982
                © 2014 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Original Research

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