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      Lactase Non-persistence and Lactose Intolerance

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          Abstract

          To evaluate the clinical and nutritional significance of genetically determined lactase non-persistence and potential lactose and milk intolerance in 65-70% of the world's adult population.

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          Most cited references64

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          Identification of a variant associated with adult-type hypolactasia.

          Adult-type hypolactasia, also known as lactase non-persistence (lactose intolerance), is a common autosomal recessive condition resulting from the physiological decline in activity of the lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) in intestinal cells after weaning. LPH hydrolyzes lactose into glucose and galactose. Sequence analyses of the coding and promoter regions of LCT, the gene encoding LPH, has revealed no DNA variations correlating with lactase non-persistence. An associated haplotype spanning LCT, as well as a distinct difference in the transcript levels of 'non-persistence' and 'persistence' alleles in heterozygotes, suggest that a cis-acting element contributes to the lactase non-persistence phenotype. Using linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotype analysis of nine extended Finnish families, we restricted the locus to a 47-kb interval on 2q21. Sequence analysis of the complete region and subsequent association analyses revealed that a DNA variant, C/T-13910, roughly 14 kb upstream from the LCT locus, completely associates with biochemically verified lactase non-persistence in Finnish families and a sample set of 236 individuals from four different populations. A second variant, G/A-22018, 8 kb telomeric to C/T-13910, is also associated with the trait in 229 of 236 cases. Prevalence of the C/T-13910 variant in 1,047 DNA samples is consistent with the reported prevalence of adult-type hypolactasia in four different populations. That the variant (C/T-13910) occurs in distantly related populations indicates that it is very old.
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            A comparison of symptoms after the consumption of milk or lactose-hydrolyzed milk by people with self-reported severe lactose intolerance.

            Ingestion of a large dose of the milk sugar lactose--for example, the 50-g load in 1 liter of milk--causes symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloating, and flatulence in the majority of people with lactose malabsorption. It is uncertain whether the ingestion of more common doses of lactose, such as the amount in 240 ml (8 oz) of milk, causes symptoms. Some people insist that even smaller quantities of milk, such as the amount used with cereal or coffee, cause severe gastrointestinal distress. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial, we evaluated gastrointestinal symptoms in 30 people (mean age, 29.4 years; range, 18 to 50) who reported severe lactose intolerance and said they consistently had symptoms after ingesting less than 240 ml of milk. The ability to digest lactose was assessed by measuring the subjects' end-alveolar hydrogen concentration after they ingested 15 g of lactose in 250 ml of water. Subjects then received either 240 ml of lactose-hydrolyzed milk containing 2 percent fat or 240 ml of milk containing 2 percent fat and sweetened with aspartame to approximate the taste of lactose-hydrolyzed milk; each type of milk was administered daily with breakfast for a one-week period. Using a standardized scale, subjects rated the occurrence and severity of bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and flatus and recorded each passage of flatus. Twenty-one participants were classified as having lactose malabsorption and nine as being able to absorb lactose. During the study periods, gastrointestinal symptoms were minimal (mean symptom-severity scores for bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and flatus between 0.1 and 1.2 [1 indicated trivial symptoms; and 2, mild symptoms]). When the periods were compared, there were no statistically significant differences in the severity of these four gastrointestinal symptoms. For the lactose-malabsorption group, the mean (+/- SEM) difference in episodes of flatus per day was 2.5 +/- 1.1 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.2 to 4.8). Daily dietary records indicated a high degree of compliance, with no additional sources of lactose reported. People who identify themselves as severely lactose-intolerant may mistakenly attribute a variety of abdominal symptoms to lactose intolerance. When lactose intake is limited to the equivalent of 240 ml of milk or less a day, symptoms are likely to be negligible and the use of lactose-digestive aids unnecessary.
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              Systematic review: effective management strategies for lactose intolerance.

              Lactose intolerance resulting in gastrointestinal symptoms is a common health concern. Diagnosis and management of this condition remain unclear. To assess the maximum tolerable dose of lactose and interventions for reducing symptoms of lactose intolerance among persons with lactose intolerance and malabsorption. Multiple electronic databases, including MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library, for trials published in English from 1967 through November 2009. Randomized, controlled trials of individuals with lactose intolerance or malabsorption. Three investigators independently reviewed articles, extracted data, and assessed study quality. 36 unique randomized studies (26 on lactase- or lactose-hydrolyzed milk supplements, lactose-reduced milk, or tolerable doses of lactose; 7 on probiotics; 2 on incremental lactose administration for colonic adaptation; and 1 on another agent) met inclusion criteria. Moderate-quality evidence indicated that 12 to 15 g of lactose (approximately 1 cup of milk) is well tolerated by most adults. Evidence was insufficient that lactose-reduced solution or milk with a lactose content of 0 to 2 g, compared with greater than 12 g, is effective in reducing symptoms of lactose intolerance. Evidence for probiotics, colonic adaptation, and other agents was also insufficient. Most studies evaluated persons with lactose malabsorption rather than lactose intolerance. Variation in enrollment criteria, outcome reporting, and the composition and dosing of studied agents precluded pooling of results and limited interpretation. Most individuals with presumed lactose intolerance or malabsorption can tolerate 12 to 15 g of lactose. Additional studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of lactose intolerance treatment.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Current Gastroenterology Reports
                Curr Gastroenterol Rep
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1522-8037
                1534-312X
                May 2017
                April 18 2017
                May 2017
                : 19
                : 5
                Article
                10.1007/s11894-017-0558-9
                28421381
                ed927e24-08e7-4cda-936b-1d59eed44069
                © 2017

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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