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      Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment (submit here)

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      Factors associated with failure to achieve remission and with relapse after remission in patients with major depressive disorder in the PERFORM study


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          The Prospective Epidemiological Research on Functioning Outcomes Related to Major Depressive Disorder (PERFORM) study has been initiated to better understand the course of a depressive episode and its impact on patient functioning. This analysis aimed to identify sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with failure to achieve remission at month 2 after initiating or switching antidepressant monotherapy and with subsequent relapse at month 6 for patients in remission at month 2.

          Materials and methods

          This was a 2-year observational cohort study in 1,159 outpatients aged 18–65 years with major depressive disorder initiating or undergoing the first switch of antidepressant monotherapy. Factors with P<0.20 in univariate logistic regression analyses were combined in a multiple logistic regression model to which backward variable selection was applied (ie, sequential removal of the least significant variable from the model and recomputation of the model until all remaining variables have P<0.05).


          Baseline factors significantly associated with lower odds of remission at month 2 were body-mass index ≥30 kg/m 2 (OR 0.51), depressive episode >8 weeks (OR 0.51), being in psychotherapy (OR 0.51), sexual dysfunction (OR 0.62), and severity of depression (OR 0.87). Factors significantly associated with relapse at month 6 were male sex (OR 2.47), being married or living as a couple (OR 2.73), residual patient-reported cognitive symptoms at 2 months (OR 1.12 per additional unit of Perceived Deficit Questionnaire-5 score) and residual depressive symptoms at 2 months (OR 1.27 per additional unit of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score).


          Different factors appear to be associated with failure to achieve remission in patients with major depressive disorder and with subsequent relapse in patients who do achieve remission. Patient-reported cognitive dysfunction is an easily measurable and treatable characteristic that may be associated with an increased likelihood of relapse at 6 months in patients who have achieved remission.

          Most cited references67

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          Concurrent and predictive validity of a self-reported measure of medication adherence.

          Adherence to the medical regimen continues to rank as a major clinical problem in the management of patients with essential hypertension, as in other conditions treated with drugs and life-style modification. This article reviews the psychometric properties and tests the concurrent and predictive validity of a structured four-item self-reported adherence measure (alpha reliability = 0.61), which can be easily integrated into the medical visit. Items in the scale address barriers to medication-taking and permit the health care provider to reinforce positive adherence behaviors. Data on patient adherence to the medical regimen were collected at the end of a formalized 18-month educational program. Blood pressure measurements were recorded throughout a 3-year follow-up period. Results showed the scale to demonstrate both concurrent and predictive validity with regard to blood pressure control at 2 years and 5 years, respectively. Seventy-five percent of the patients who scored high on the four-item scale at year 2 had their blood pressure under adequate control at year 5, compared with 47% under control at year 5 for those patients scoring low (P less than 0.01).
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            Acute and longer-term outcomes in depressed outpatients requiring one or several treatment steps: a STAR*D report.

            This report describes the participants and compares the acute and longer-term treatment outcomes associated with each of four successive steps in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) trial. A broadly representative adult outpatient sample with nonpsychotic major depressive disorder received one (N=3,671) to four (N=123) successive acute treatment steps. Those not achieving remission with or unable to tolerate a treatment step were encouraged to move to the next step. Those with an acceptable benefit, preferably symptom remission, from any particular step could enter a 12-month naturalistic follow-up phase. A score of or=11 (HRSD(17)>or=14) defined relapse. The QIDS-SR(16) remission rates were 36.8%, 30.6%, 13.7%, and 13.0% for the first, second, third, and fourth acute treatment steps, respectively. The overall cumulative remission rate was 67%. Overall, those who required more treatment steps had higher relapse rates during the naturalistic follow-up phase. In addition, lower relapse rates were found among participants who were in remission at follow-up entry than for those who were not after the first three treatment steps. When more treatment steps are required, lower acute remission rates (especially in the third and fourth treatment steps) and higher relapse rates during the follow-up phase are to be expected. Studies to identify the best multistep treatment sequences for individual patients and the development of more broadly effective treatments are needed.
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              Conceptualization and rationale for consensus definitions of terms in major depressive disorder. Remission, recovery, relapse, and recurrence.

              In 1988, the MacArthur Foundation Research Network on the Psychobiology of Depression convened a task force to examine the ways in which change points in the course of depressive illness had been described and the extent to which inconsistency in these descriptions might be impeding research on this disorder. We found considerable inconsistency across and even within research reports and concluded that research on depressive illness would be well served by greater consistency in the definition change points in the course of illness. We propose an internally consistent, empirically defined conceptual scheme for the terms remission, recovery, relapse, and recurrence. In addition, we propose tentative operational criteria for each term. Finally, we discuss ways to assess the usefulness of such operational criteria through reanalysis of existing data and the design and conduct of new experiments.

                Author and article information

                Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat
                Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat
                Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
                Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
                Dove Medical Press
                09 August 2017
                : 13
                : 2151-2165
                [1 ]Real-World Evidence and Epidemiology, Lundbeck SAS, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France
                [2 ]Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Lundbeck, Deerfield, IL, US
                [3 ]Research and Teaching Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu, CIBERSAM, University of Barcelona, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain
                [4 ]Department of Economics, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden
                [5 ]Department of Health Policy, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK
                [6 ]Biostatistics, Inferential, Paris, France
                [7 ]Clinical Research Paediatrics, H. Lundbeck A/S, Valby, Denmark
                [8 ]Biometrics, H. Lundbeck A/S, Valby, Denmark
                [9 ]Global Analytics, Lundbeck SAS, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Maëlys Touya, Lundbeck LLC, 6 Parkway North, Deerfield, IL 60015, US, Tel +1 224 727 7423, Email mtou@ 123456lundbeck.com
                © 2017 Saragoussi et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                major depressive disorder,remission,relapse,patient-reported cognitive dysfunction
                major depressive disorder, remission, relapse, patient-reported cognitive dysfunction


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