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      Semiochemical and Communication Ecology of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)


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          Knowledge of buprestid chemical ecology is sparse but the appearance of the invasive pest Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire in North America has provided the impetus to study in detail the semiochemistry and ecology of this important buprestid. The macrocyclic lactone (3Z)-12-dodecenolide [(3Z)-lactone] is identified as a key antennally-active compound that is produced by females and attracts males. Though a weak trap attractant alone, when combined with the host kairomone (3Z)-hexenol and the important visual cue of a green canopy trap, significant increases in male trap capture occur, thus defining (3Z)-lactone as both a sex pheromone of A. planipennis as well as the first and only known buprestid pheromone. The non-natural stereoisomer (3E)-12-dodecenolide and the saturated analog, 12-dodecanolide also exhibit mimetic activities towards male A. planipennis, suggesting a notable plasticity in this pheromonal structural motif. Efficient synthetic routes to these compounds have been developed. A series of fluoro-12-dodecanolides has also been synthesized containing CF 2 groups as a strategy to bias the conformational space accessed by these macrolides and to assess if the analogs may act as mimetics for 12-dodecanolide pheromones associated in A. planipennis. These compounds also afford a unique opportunity to study the binding affinities of lactone surrogates with A. planipennis chemosensory proteins and olfactory receptors. Some progress has also been made in identifying the genes involved in the reception, processing and degradation of volatiles in this invasive insect. It is now evident that the behavior and ecology of A. planipennis involves a complex pattern of sensory modalities, including visual, tactile, olfactory and potentially acoustic components. Earlier reviews focused on studies of attractive host volatiles in development of a trapping system for early detection and visual and contact phenomena in A. planipennis mate finding. This review will update the semiochemistry and chemical ecology of A. planipennis and discuss studies on chemistry and behavior that have identified female-produced pheromone components and host kairomones.

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          Emerald Ash Borer Invasion of North America: History, Biology, Ecology, Impacts, and Management

          Since its accidental introduction from Asia, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has killed millions of ash trees in North America. As it continues to spread, it could functionally extirpate ash with devastating economic and ecological impacts. Little was known about EAB when it was first discovered in North America in 2002, but substantial advances in understanding of EAB biology, ecology, and management have occurred since. Ash species indigenous to China are generally resistant to EAB and may eventually provide resistance genes for introgression into North American species. EAB is characterized by stratified dispersal resulting from natural and human-assisted spread, and substantial effort has been devoted to the development of survey methods. Early eradication efforts were abandoned largely because of the difficulty of detecting and delineating infestations. Current management is focused on biological control, insecticide protection of high-value trees, and integrated efforts to slow ash mortality.
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            A Stereoselective Synthesis oftrans-1,2-Disubstituted Alkenes Based on the Condensation of Aldehydes with Metallated 1-Phenyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl Sulfones

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              Electrophysiological response and attraction of emerald ash borer to green leaf volatiles (GLVs) emitted by host foliage.

              Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) function as host attractants, pheromone synergists, or sexual kairomones for a number of coleopteran folivores. Hence, we focused on host GLVs to determine if they were attractive to adults of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), which feeds on ash (Fraxinus) foliage. Eight GLVs were identified by chromatography-electroantennogram (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry in foliar headspace volatiles collected in traps containing Super-Q from white ash, Fraxinus americana, and green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, trees. GLVs in the aeration extracts elicited antennal responses from both male and female adults in gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection bioassays. Male antennae were more responsive than female antennae and showed the strongest response to (Z)-3-hexenol. Six field experiments were conducted in Canada and the USA from 2004 to 2006 to evaluate the attractiveness of candidate GLVs, in various lure combinations and dosages. Field experiments demonstrated that lures containing (Z)-3-hexenol were the most effective in increasing trap catch when placed on purple traps in open areas or along the edges of woodlots containing ash. Lures with (Z)-3-hexenol were more attractive to males than females, and dosage may be a factor determining its effectiveness.

                Author and article information

                27 September 2019
                October 2019
                : 10
                : 10
                : 323
                [1 ]Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service—Atlantic Forestry Centre, 1350 Regent Street, Fredericton, NB E3B 5P7, Canada
                [2 ]Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service—Great Lakes Forestry Centre, 1219 Queen Street East, Sault Ste. Marie, ON P6A 2E5, Canada
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: peter.silk@ 123456canada.ca ; Tel.: +1-506-451-6084
                Author information
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 21 August 2019
                : 20 September 2019

                agrilus planipennis,semiochemistry,buprestids,pheromones,host kairomones,chemical ecology


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