Blog
About

46
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    1
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Irritable bowel syndrome

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disease with a high population prevalence. The disorder can be debilitating in some patients, whereas others may have mild or moderate symptoms. The most important single risk factors are female sex, younger age and preceding gastrointestinal infections. Clinical symptoms of IBS include abdominal pain or discomfort, stool irregularities and bloating, as well as other somatic, visceral and psychiatric comorbidities. Currently, the diagnosis of IBS is based on symptoms and the exclusion of other organic diseases, and therapy includes drug treatment of the predominant symptoms, nutrition and psychotherapy. Although the underlying pathogenesis is far from understood, aetiological factors include increased epithelial hyperpermeability, dysbiosis, inflammation, visceral hypersensitivity, epigenetics and genetics, and altered brain-gut interactions. IBS considerably affects quality of life and imposes a profound burden on patients, physicians and the health-care system. The past decade has seen remarkable progress in our understanding of functional bowel disorders such as IBS that will be summarized in this Primer.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 173

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Global prevalence of and risk factors for irritable bowel syndrome: a meta-analysis.

          Many cross-sectional surveys have reported the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but there have been no recent systematic review of data from all studies to determine its global prevalence and risk factors. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and EMBASE Classic were searched (until October 2011) to identify population-based studies that reported the prevalence of IBS in adults (≥15 years old); IBS was defined by using specific symptom-based criteria or questionnaires. The prevalence of IBS was extracted for all studies and based on the criteria used to define it. Pooled prevalence, according to study location and certain other characteristics, odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Of the 390 citations evaluated, 81 reported the prevalence of IBS in 80 separate study populations containing 260,960 subjects. Pooled prevalence in all studies was 11.2% (95% CI, 9.8%-12.8%). The prevalence varied according to country (from 1.1% to 45.0%) and criteria used to define IBS. The greatest prevalence values were calculated when ≥3 Manning criteria were used (14%; 95% CI, 10.0%-17.0%); by using the Rome I and Rome II criteria, prevalence values were 8.8% (95% CI, 6.8%-11.2%) and 9.4% (95% CI, 7.8%-11.1%), respectively. The prevalence was higher for women than men (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.53-1.82) and lower for individuals older than 50 years, compared with those younger than 50 (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.62-0.92). There was no effect of socioeconomic status, but only 4 studies reported these data. The prevalence of IBS varies among countries, as well as criteria used to define its presence. Women are at slightly higher risk for IBS than men. The effects of socioeconomic status have not been well described. Copyright © 2012 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            American College of Gastroenterology guidelines for colorectal cancer screening 2009 [corrected].

            This document is the first update of the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) colorectal cancer (CRC) screening recommendations since 2000. The CRC screening tests are now grouped into cancer prevention tests and cancer detection tests. Colonoscopy every 10 years, beginning at age 50, remains the preferred CRC screening strategy. It is recognized that colonoscopy is not available in every clinical setting because of economic limitations. It is also realized that not all eligible persons are willing to undergo colonoscopy for screening purposes. In these cases, patients should be offered an alternative CRC prevention test (flexible sigmoidoscopy every 5-10 years, or a computed tomography (CT) colonography every 5 years) or a cancer detection test (fecal immunochemical test for blood, FIT).
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Activated mast cells in proximity to colonic nerves correlate with abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome.

              The mechanisms underlying abdominal pain perception in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are poorly understood. Intestinal mast cell infiltration may perturb nerve function leading to symptom perception. We assessed colonic mast cell infiltration, mediator release, and spatial interactions with mucosal innervation and their correlation with abdominal pain in IBS patients. IBS patients were diagnosed according to Rome II criteria and abdominal pain quantified according to a validated questionnaire. Colonic mucosal mast cells were identified immunohistochemically and quantified with a computer-assisted counting method. Mast cell tryptase and histamine release were analyzed immunoenzymatically. Intestinal nerve to mast cell distance was assessed with electron microscopy. Thirty-four out of 44 IBS patients (77%) showed an increased area of mucosa occupied by mast cells as compared with controls (9.2% +/- 2.5% vs. 3.3 +/- 0.8%, respectively; P < 0.001). There was a 150% increase in the number of degranulating mast cells (4.76 +/- 3.18/field vs. 2.42 +/- 2.26/field, respectively; P = 0.026). Mucosal content of tryptase was increased in IBS and mast cells spontaneously released more tryptase (3.22 +/- 3.48 pmol/min/mg vs. 0.87 +/- 0.65 pmol/min/mg, respectively; P = 0.015) and histamine (339.7 +/- 59.0 ng/g vs. 169.3 +/- 130.6 ng/g, respectively; P = 0.015). Mast cells located within 5 microm of nerve fibers were 7.14 +/- 3.87/field vs. 2.27 +/- 1.63/field in IBS vs. controls (P < 0.001). Only mast cells in close proximity to nerves were significantly correlated with severity and frequency of abdominal pain/discomfort (P < 0.001 and P = 0.003, respectively). Colonic mast cell infiltration and mediator release in proximity to mucosal innervation may contribute to abdominal pain perception in IBS patients.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Disease Primers
                Nat Rev Dis Primers
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                2056-676X
                December 2016
                March 24 2016
                December 2016
                : 2
                : 1
                Article
                10.1038/nrdp.2016.14
                5001845
                27159638
                © 2016

                Comments

                Comment on this article