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      Use of Cantilever Mechanics for Impacted Teeth: Case Series

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          This paper describes the orthodontic treatment, and the biomechanics of cantilevers for the impaction of permanent teeth in youngs, adolescents, and adults. In these case series, multibracket straightwire fixed appliances, together with cantilever mechanics, were used to treat the impaired occlusion.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders: review, criteria, examinations and specifications, critique.

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            Oral parafunctions as risk factors for diagnostic TMD subgroups.

            The frequency of diurnal clenching and/or grinding and nail-biting habits was assessed in patients affected by temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and in healthy controls in order to investigate the possible association between these oral parafunctions and different diagnostic subgroups of TMDs. The case group included 557 patients (127 men, mean age +/- SD = 34.5 +/- 15.4 years; 430 women, mean age +/- SD = 32.9 +/- 14.1 years) affected by myofascial pain or disc displacement or arthralgia/arthritis/arthrosis. The control group included 111 healthy subjects (55 men, mean age +/- SD = 37 +/- 15.2 years; 56 women, mean age +/- SD = 38.2 +/- 13.8 years). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between oral parafunctions and TMDs, after adjusting for age and gender. Daytime clenching/grinding was a significant risk factor for myofascial pain (odds ratio (OR) = 4.9, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.0-7.8) and for disc displacement (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.4-4.3), nail biting was not associated to any of the subgroups investigated. Female gender was a significant risk factor for myofascial pain (OR = 3.8; 95% CI: 2.4-6.1), whereas the risk factor for developing disc displacement decreased with ageing. No association was found between gender, age and arthralgia/arthritis/arthrosis.
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              Mandibular lateral incisor-canine transposition, concomitant dental anomalies, and genetic control.

              Mandibular lateral incisor-canine (Mn.I2.C) transposition is a rare developmental disturbance of tooth order characterized by positional interchange of the two teeth. In children with Mn.I2.C anomaly, the mandibular lateral incisor shows distal ectopic eruption and the adjacent canine subsequently erupts mesial to it. A sample of 60 orthodontic patients with Mn.I2.C transposition was studied using roentgenograms taken at the time of diagnosis. Two age-related phenotypes of the anomaly were identified: early-stage (median age, 9 years) and mature-stage (median age, 12 years). Mn.I2.C transposition occurred bilaterally in 10 subjects (17%) and favored female expression (sex ratio, M1:F3) and right-side occurrence (68% of unilateral cases). Statistically significant associations were found between Mn.I2.C transposition and increased frequency of tooth agenesis (M3, p < 0.01; MnP2, p < 0.01) and peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisors (p < 0.0001). The results from this study and the analysis of 50 previously published cases provide evidence that Mn.I2.C transposition is a disturbance of tooth order and eruptive position probably caused by genetic influences. The Mn.I2.C anomaly likely results from genetic mechanisms similar to those responsible for occurrences of its associated dental anomalies, such as tooth agenesis and peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisors. In an appendix, clinical orthodontic management of Mn.I2.C transposition is discussed, based on treatment data derived from the study sample.

                Author and article information

                Open Dent J
                Open Dent J
                The Open Dentistry Journal
                Bentham Open
                30 December 2013
                : 7
                : 186-197
                [1 ]Department of Health Sciences - University Magna Graecia Catanzaro, Italy
                [2 ]Department of Neuroscience, Section of Orthodontics, University of Naples Federico II, Italy
                Author notes
                [* ]Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Health Sciences, University of Catanzaro Magna Graecia, Viale Europa Località Germaneto – Catanzaro – Italy; Tel: +39 0961-3694001; Fax: +39 0961-3694001; E-mail: paduano@
                © Paduano et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

                This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.



                tooth impaction, cantilever mechanics, orthodontic case series.


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