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      Ensaio clínico, aberto, controlado sobre a adição de brometo de ipratrópio ao fenoterol no tratamento da crise de asma em adultos Translated title: Open, controlled clinical assay of the addition of ipratropium bromide to fenoterol in the treatment of acute asthma crisis in adults

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          Abstract

          No tratamento da crise de asma, empregam-se doses repetidas de drogas b2-agonistas por via inalatória. O efeito da adição do brometo de ipratrópio (BI) ao b2-agonistas é controverso em adultos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar se adição de BI ao fenoterol, em tratamentos inalatórios repetidos, induz a maior broncodilatação, com reversibilidade da crise e alta da emergência em pacientes em crise grave de asma. LOCAL DO ESTUDO: Serviço de Pronto-Atendimento de Pneumologia, Disciplina de Pneumologia da Unifesp-Hospital São Paulo, no período de julho de 1995 a fevereiro de 1997. TIPO DE ESTUDO: Aberto, randomizado, paralelo. Alta da emergência determinada pelo VEF1 e PFE > 60% do previsto. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: Cento e vinte pacientes em crise de asma foram divididos em dois grupos (N = 60): fenoterol (F) e brometo de ipratrópio + fenoterol (BIF) com VEF1 e PFE < 50% do previsto. Cada grupo recebeu três tratamentos inalatórios, através de nebulímetro e câmara de expansão, administrados em intervalos de 30 minutos. No grupo F foram administrados 4 jatos de fenoterol (400mcg) e no grupo BIF, 160mcg de BI e 400mcg de fenoterol (4 jatos). RESULTADOS: A média (± DP) do PFE basal (F = 36 ± 7% vs. BIF = 35 ± 9% previsto) e do VEF1 basal (F = 33 ± 9% vs. BIF = 32 ± 9%). Trinta e dois pacientes no grupo F e 33 pacientes no grupo BIF tiveram alta após tratamentos inalatórios. O VEF1 e PFE ao final dos tratamentos inalatórios foram, respectivamente, F = 60 ± 13% vs. BIF = 61 ± 11% e F = 74 ± 18% vs. BIF = 77 ± 13% (NS). CONCLUSÃO: A adição de brometo de ipratrópio ao fenoterol resulta em efeito funcional insignificante e sem impacto clínico no tratamento da crise de asma em adultos.

          Translated abstract

          Repeated dosis of inhaled b2-agonists have been used in the treatment of acute asthma. The effect of added ipratropium bromide (IB) to b2-agonist is controversial in adults. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if addition of IB to fenoterol, in repeated doses, induces a greater bronchodilation, a greater reversion of the attack, and discharge from emergency unit in adults with acute severe asthma. SETTING: Pneumology Emergency Department, Unifesp-Hospital São Paulo, in the period from July 1995 to February 1997. TYPE OF STUDY: Open, randomized and parallel study. Discharge from the hospital: FEV1 and PEF > 60% of the predicted value. METHODS: 120 patients with FEV1 and PEF < 50% of the predicted value were divided into two groups (N = 60): fenoterol (F) and ipratropium bromide + fenoterol (IBF). Each group received inhalation treatment through a metered-dose inhaler (MDI) attached to a holding chamber, administered at 30-minute interval, for a total of three treatments. In the group F four puffs of fenoterol (400 mg) were administered, and in the IBF group, 160 mg of BI and 400 mg of fenoterol (four puffs). RESULTS: The patients did not differ from basal PEF (F = 36 ± 7% vs IBF = 35 ± 9% predicted) and basal FEV1 (F = 33 ± 9% vs IBF = 32 ± 9% predicted). Thirty-two patients of group F and 33 of group IBF were discharged from hospital after the inhalation treatment. The final FEV1 and PEF after inhalation treatments were F = 60 ± 13% vs IBF = 61 ± 11% e F = 74 ± 18% vs IBF = 77 ± 13% (NS). CONCLUSION: The addition of ipratropium bromide to fenoterol results in insignificant functional effect and without clinical impact in the treatment of acute asthma in adults.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Effect of nebulized ipratropium on the hospitalization rates of children with asthma.

          Anticholinergic medications such as ipratropium improve the pulmonary function of patients with acute exacerbations of asthma, but their effect on hospitalization rates is uncertain. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 434 children (2 to 18 years old) who had acute exacerbations of moderate or severe asthma treated in the emergency department. All the children received a nebulized solution of albuterol (2.5 or 5 mg per dose, depending on body weight) every 20 minutes for three doses and then as needed. A corticosteroid (2 mg of prednisone or prednisolone per kilogram of body weight) was given orally with the second dose of albuterol. Children in the treatment group received 500 microg (2.5 ml) of ipratropium bromide with the second and third doses of albuterol; children in the control group received 2.5 ml of normal saline at these times. Overall, the rate of hospitalization was lower in the ipratropium group (59 of 215 children [27.4 percent]) than in the control group (80 of 219 [36.5 percent], P=0.05). For patients with moderate asthma (indicated by a peak expiratory flow rate of 50 to 70 percent of the predicted value or an asthma score of 8 to 11 on a 15-point scale), hospitalization rates were similar in the two groups (ipratropium: 8 of 79 children [10.1 percent]; control: 9 of 84 [10.7 percent]). For patients with severe asthma (defined as a peak expiratory flow rate of <50 percent of the predicted value or an asthma score of 12 to 15), the addition of ipratropium significantly reduced the need for hospitalization (51 of 136 children [37.5 percent], as compared with 71 of 135 [52.6 percent] in the control group; P=0.02). Among children with a severe exacerbation of asthma, the addition of ipratropium bromide to albuterol and corticosteroid therapy significantly decreases the hospitalization rate.
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            Standardization of spirometry: 1987 update

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              Nebulized anticholinergic and sympathomimetic treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive airways disease in the emergency room.

              The effectiveness of nebulized anticholinergic and sympathomimetic regimens was evaluated in a double-blind study of 199 patients with acute airways obstruction. Patients were assigned to one of three treatment regimens according to a randomized schedule: 0.5 mg of ipratropium bromide, 1.25 mg of fenoterol hydrobromide, and 0.5 mg of ipratropium plus 1.25 mg of fenoterol. In 148 patients with acute exacerbations of asthma (mean one-second forced expiratory volume, 1.18 +/- 0.64 liters), all three regimens produced significant improvement in one-second forced expiratory volume (p less than 0.001). The greatest improvement followed treatment with the ipratropium-fenoterol combination (0.53 +/- 0.40 liters at 45 minutes; 0.57 +/- 0.51 liters at 90 minutes) and was significantly greater than that following either ipratropium alone (p less than 0.001) or fenoterol alone (p less than 0.05). In 51 patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (mean one-second forced expiratory volume, 0.67 +/- 0.29 liter), each regimen produced significant improvement in one-second forced expiratory volume at both 45 and 90 minutes (for all, p less than 0.05), but there was no significant difference among the three treatment regimens. It is concluded that, in patients with acute asthma, combination therapy with sympathomimetic and anticholinergic agents is more efficacious than either one alone. In patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, although either sympathomimetic or anticholinergic therapy provides bronchodilatation, no further benefit could be demonstrated from combination therapy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                jpneu
                Jornal de Pneumologia
                J. Pneumologia
                Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia (São Paulo, SP, Brazil )
                0102-3586
                1678-4642
                December 1999
                : 25
                : 6
                : 301-308
                Affiliations
                orgnameUniversidade Federal de São Paulo orgdiv1Escola Paulista de Medicina
                orgnameUniversidade Federal de São Paulo orgdiv1Departamento de Enfermagem
                Article
                S0102-35861999000600002 S0102-3586(99)02500602

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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