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      Tailored ZnS/Ag/TiO x transparent and conductive electrode for organic solar cells

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          Abstract

          Organic photovoltaic cells (OPVCs) attract high interest for solar energy harvesting. They are based on organic thin films sandwiched between two electrodes, one of them being transparent and conductive. Nowadays, ITO remains the most widely used transparent conductive electrode (TCE) because of its excellent optical and electrical properties compared to other TCEs. However, it has some drawbacks such as scarcity of indium, high fabrication cost, and mechanical properties poorly adapted to use as flexible substrates. To keep these performances without indium, several materials can replace ITO such as MoO 3, ZnO, ZnS, TiO 2,… as dielectric and Ag, Cu,... as metal inside a dielectric/metal/dielectric three-layer structure. A Transfer Matrix Method (TMM) based numerical model is used to predict the optical behavior of the considered electrodes. ZnS/Ag/TiO x electrodes are manufactured by a vacuum electron beam evaporator on glass substrates, then characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometer for obtaining transmittance and reflectance and by a four-point method for the measurement of sheet resistance. It is found that the simulation and experimental curves are quite similar. The transmittance is measured to be higher than 80% on a wide spectral band that can be tailored by the thickness of the upper dielectric material. The optical window Δ λ, for T > 80%, can be tuned in the 400–800 nm spectral band, according to the thickness of TiO x in the 25–50 nm range. This variation allows us to adapt our electrode to organic materials in order to optimize the performance of organic solar cells. The sheet resistance obtained is around to 7 Ω/sq, which gives our electrodes the transparent and conductive character simultaneously. A typical parameter to compare the electrodes is the merit figure, which questions the average optical transmission T av in the visible range and the sheet resistance R sq. By applying this figure to many manufactured electrodes, the obtained optimal structure of our TCEs is demonstrated to be ZnS (40 nm)/Ag (10 nm)/TiO x (30 nm).

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          Past achievements and future challenges in the development of optically transparent electrodes

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                epjpv
                https://www.epj-pv.org
                EPJ Photovoltaics
                EPJ Photovolt.
                EDP Sciences
                2105-0716
                04 June 2019
                04 June 2019
                2019
                : 10
                : ( publisher-idID: epjpv/2019/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Aix-Marseille Université, Institut Matériaux Microélectronique Nanosciences de Provence – IM2NP, CNRS-UMR 7334, Domaine Universitaire de Saint-Jérôme, , 13 397 Marseille Cedex 20, France,
                [2 ] UPDS, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Université de Tunis El Manar, , Tunis, Tunisia,
                [3 ] École Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Tunis ENSIT, Université de Tunis, , Tunis, Tunisia,
                Author notes
                Article
                pv190002
                10.1051/epjpv/2019004
                edd5d087-cdd3-4d67-abe8-3b21cfc08ab0
                © M.A. Cherif et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2019

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 1, Equations: 4, References: 29, Pages: 7
                Product
                Self URI (journal page): https://www.epj-pv.org
                Categories
                Optics of Thin Films, TCOs
                Topical Issue: From advanced materials and technologies to multiscale integration and usages
                Regular Article
                Custom metadata
                national-agreement-fr_2019
                yes
                EPJ Photovoltaics 10, 2 (2019)
                2019
                2019
                2019

                Sustainable & Green chemistry,Materials technology,Semiconductors,Materials for energy,Technical & Applied physics,Renewable energy
                oxide,TMM numerical calculation,dielectric,thin film,organic solar cells,metal,Multilayer,in-free transparent and conductive electrodes

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