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      Blood Purification in Non-Renal Critical Illness

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          Abstract

          Extracorporeal therapies designed to remove substances from the circulation now include hemodialysis, hemofiltration, hemoadsorption, plasma filtration, cell-based therapies and combinations of any of the above. In recent years, there have been considerable advances in our understanding and technical capabilities, but consensus over the optimal way, and under what conditions to use these therapies does not exist. Consequently, we have initiated a series of conferences under the auspices of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI). ADQI aims at establishing an evidence-based appraisal and set of consensus recommendations to standardize care and direct further research. The results of previous consensus conferences are available on-line at www.ADQI.net. ADQI conferences have focused on research and management of renal disease. However, extracorporeal therapies are being used or investigated in the management of many other disease processes including systemic inflammation, liver disease, cardiac disease and thrombotic diseases.

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          Most cited references 9

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          A pilot study of coupled plasma filtration with adsorption in septic shock.

          To test the hypothesis that nonselective plasma adsorption by a hydrophobic resin (coupled plasmafiltration and adsorption) could improve hemodynamics and restore leukocyte responsiveness in patients with septic shock. Prospective, pilot, crossover clinical trial. General intensive care unit in a teaching hospital. Ten patients with hyperdynamic septic shock. Patients were randomly allocated to 10 hrs of either coupled plasma filtration adsorption plus hemodialysis (treatment A) or continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (treatment B) in random order. We measured the change in mean arterial pressure, norepinephrine requirements, and leukocyte tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production (both spontaneous and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated) after 10 hrs of each treatment. We also tested TNF-alpha production from normal human adherent monocytes incubated with patients' plasma obtained before and after the resin, both with or without incubation with an anti-interleukin-10 monoclonal antibody. Mean arterial pressure increased after 10 hr by 11.8 mm Hg with treatment A and by 5.5 mm Hg with treatment B (p =.001). There was an average decrease of norepinephrine requirement of 0.08 microg/kg/min with treatment A and 0.0049 microg/kg/min with treatment B (p =.003). All patients but one survived. Spontaneous and lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha production from patients' whole blood increased over time with treatment A. This increase was more marked in blood drawn after the device (plasmafiltrate-sorbent plus hemodialyzer) (p =.009). Preresin plasma suppressed lipopolysaccharide-stimulated production of TNF-alpha by 1 x 10(6)cultured adherent monocytes from healthy donors. This suppressive effect was significantly reduced after passage of plasma through the resin (p =.019) and after incubation with anti-interleukin-10 monoclonal antibodies (p =.028). In patients with septic shock, coupled plasmafiltration-adsorption combined with hemodialysis was associated with improved hemodynamics compared with continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration. This result might be related to its ability to restore leukocyte responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide. These findings suggest a potential role for blood purification in the treatment of septic shock.
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            Long-term results of overlapping anterior anal-sphincter repair for obstetric trauma.

            Anterior structural damage to the anal sphincter occurs in up to a third of women at first vaginal delivery, and of these a third have new bowel symptoms. The standard treatment for such structural damage is anterior overlapping anal-sphincter repair. We aimed to assess the long-term results of this operation. We assessed the long-term results in 55 consecutive patients who had had repair a minimum of 5 years (median 77 months [range 60-96]) previously. Questionnaire and telephone interview assessed current bowel function and continence, restriction in activities related to bowel control, and overall satisfaction with the results of surgery. 42 of these patients had been continent of solid and liquid stool at a median of 15 months after the repair. We were able to contact 47 (86%) of the 55 patients. One of these patients had required a proctectomy and end ileostomy for Crohn's disease. Of the remaining 46 patients, 27 reported improved bowel control without the need for further surgery, and 23 rated their symptom improvement as 50% or greater. Seven patients had undergone further surgery for incontinence and one patient had not had a covering stoma closed. Thus, the long-term functional outcome of the sphincter repair alone could be assessed in 38 patients. Of these patients, none was fully continent to both stool and flatus; only four were totally continent to solid and liquid stool; six had no faecal urgency; and eight had no passive soiling. Of the 38 patients, 20 still wore a pad for incontinence and 25 reported lifestyle restriction. 14 reported the onset of a new evacuation disorder after sphincter repair. 23 of the 46 patients contacted had a successful long-term outcome (defined as no further surgery and urge faecal incontinence monthly or less). The results of overlapping sphincter repair for obstetric anal-sphincter damage seem to deteriorate with time. Preoperative counselling should emphasise that although most patients will improve after the procedure, continence is rarely perfect, many have residual symptoms, and some may develop new evacuation disorders.
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              The inflammatory balance in human sepsis.

               M Pinsky,  C Adrie (2000)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-7535-5
                978-3-318-00939-2
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2003
                2003
                22 January 2003
                : 21
                : 1
                : 6-13
                Affiliations
                aUniversity of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Department of Critical Care Medicine; Pittsburgh, Pa., USA; bIntensive Care Unit, Austin & Repatriation Medical Centre, Heidelberg, Vic., Australia; cDepartment of Nephrology, University of Southern California, San Diego, Calif., USA, and dDepartment of Nephrology, St. Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza, Italy
                Article
                67862 Blood Purif 2003;21:6–13
                10.1159/000067862
                12566655
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, References: 36, Pages: 8
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/67862
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