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      COVID-19 and Obesity: Overlapping of Two Pandemics

      * ,
      Obesity Facts
      S. Karger AG
      Obesity, COVID-19, Body fat, Pandemic, Inflammation, Thrombosis

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          The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has recently led to worldwide research efforts to identify subjects at greater risk of developing more severe illness: overall obesity displayed a strong correlation with critical illness and major severity of COVID-19 manifestations.


          Obesity and metabolic disorders are closely linked to chronic systemic inflammation. The adipose tissue constitutes a source of cytokines, which configure a low-grade inflammation and a hypercoagulation status; in addition, diagnosis and care of obese patients are often complicated by excess weight and ventilation difficulties.

          Key Messages

          This review aims to examine the intersection between obesity and adverse outcomes of COVID-19, in order to investigate its preventive and/or therapeutic potential in the management of obesity-related COVID-19 complications.

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          Most cited references46

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          Autopsy Findings and Venous Thromboembolism in Patients With COVID-19

          Background: The new coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS–CoV-2), has caused more than 210 000 deaths worldwide. However, little is known about the causes of death and the virus's pathologic features. Objective: To validate and compare clinical findings with data from medical autopsy, virtual autopsy, and virologic tests. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Autopsies performed at a single academic medical center, as mandated by the German federal state of Hamburg for patients dying with a polymerase chain reaction–confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. Patients: The first 12 consecutive COVID-19–positive deaths. Measurements: Complete autopsy, including postmortem computed tomography and histopathologic and virologic analysis, was performed. Clinical data and medical course were evaluated. Results: Median patient age was 73 years (range, 52 to 87 years), 75% of patients were male, and death occurred in the hospital (n = 10) or outpatient sector (n = 2). Coronary heart disease and asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were the most common comorbid conditions (50% and 25%, respectively). Autopsy revealed deep venous thrombosis in 7 of 12 patients (58%) in whom venous thromboembolism was not suspected before death; pulmonary embolism was the direct cause of death in 4 patients. Postmortem computed tomography revealed reticular infiltration of the lungs with severe bilateral, dense consolidation, whereas histomorphologically diffuse alveolar damage was seen in 8 patients. In all patients, SARS–CoV-2 RNA was detected in the lung at high concentrations; viremia in 6 of 10 and 5 of 12 patients demonstrated high viral RNA titers in the liver, kidney, or heart. Limitation: Limited sample size. Conclusion: The high incidence of thromboembolic events suggests an important role of COVID-19–induced coagulopathy. Further studies are needed to investigate the molecular mechanism and overall clinical incidence of COVID-19–related death, as well as possible therapeutic interventions to reduce it. Primary Funding Source: University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf.
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            High prevalence of obesity in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus‐2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) requiring invasive mechanical ventilation

            Abstract Objective The Covid‐19 pandemic is rapidly spreading worldwide, notably in Europe and North America, where obesity is highly prevalent. The relation between obesity and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus‐2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) has not been fully documented. Methods In this retrospective cohort study we analyzed the relationship between clinical characteristics, including body mass index (BMI), and the requirement for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in 124 consecutive patients admitted in intensive care for SARS‐CoV‐2, in a single French center. Results Obesity (BMI >30 kg/m2) and severe obesity (BMI >35 kg/m2) were present in 47.6% and 28.2% of cases, respectively. Overall, 85 patients (68.6%) required IMV. The proportion of patients who required IMV increased with BMI categories (p 35 kg/m2 (85.7%). In multivariate logistic regression, the need for IMV was significantly associated with male sex (p 35 kg/m2 vs patients with BMI <25 kg/m2 was 7.36 (1.63‐33.14; p=0.02) Conclusion The present study showed a high frequency of obesity among patients admitted in intensive care for SARS‐CoV‐2. Disease severity increased with BMI. Obesity is a risk factor for SARS‐CoV‐2 severity requiring increased attention to preventive measures in susceptible individuals.
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              Obesity in patients younger than 60 years is a risk factor for Covid-19 hospital admission


                Author and article information

                Obes Facts
                Obes Facts
                Obesity Facts
                S. Karger AG (Allschwilerstrasse 10, P.O. Box · Postfach · Case postale, CH–4009, Basel, Switzerland · Schweiz · Suisse, Phone: +41 61 306 11 11, Fax: +41 61 306 12 34, karger@karger.com )
                24 September 2021
                24 September 2021
                : 1-7
                Human and Clinical Nutrition Unit, Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, University G. D'Annunzio, Chieti, Italy
                Author notes
                *Maria Alessandra Gammone, m.alessandra.gammone@ 123456gmail.com
                Copyright © 2021 by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 15 April 2021
                : 3 July 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 1, References: 46, Pages: 7
                Review Article

                obesity,covid-19,body fat,pandemic,inflammation,thrombosis
                obesity, covid-19, body fat, pandemic, inflammation, thrombosis


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