Milica Videnović † , Dejan M. Opsenica , ‡ , James C. Burnett § , Laura Gomba ∥ , Jonathan E. Nuss ∥ , Života Selaković † , Jelena Konstantinović ⊥ , Maja Krstić † , Sandra Šegan ‡ , Mario Zlatović † , Richard J. Sciotti # , Sina Bavari , ∞ , Bogdan A. Šolaja , †
17 April 2014
Significantly more potent second generation 4-amino-7-chloroquinoline (4,7-ACQ) based inhibitors of the botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) light chain were synthesized. Introducing an amino group at the C(3) position of the cholate component markedly increased potency (IC 50 values for such derivatives ranged from 0.81 to 2.27 μM). Two additional subclasses were prepared: bis(steroidal)-4,7-ACQ derivatives and bis(4,7-ACQ)cholate derivatives; both classes provided inhibitors with nanomolar-range potencies (e.g., the K i of compound 67 is 0.10 μM). During BoNT/A challenge using primary neurons, select derivatives protected SNAP-25 by up to 89%. Docking simulations were performed to rationalize the compounds’ in vitro potencies. In addition to specific residue contacts, coordination of the enzyme’s catalytic zinc and expulsion of the enzyme’s catalytic water were a consistent theme. With respect to antimalarial activity, the compounds provided better IC 90 activities against chloroquine resistant (CQR) malaria than CQ, and seven compounds were more active than mefloquine against CQR strain W2.