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      p53 Acetylation: Regulation and Consequences

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          Abstract

          Post-translational modifications of p53 are critical in modulating its tumor suppressive functions. Ubiquitylation, for example, plays a major role in dictating p53 stability, subcellular localization and transcriptional vs. non-transcriptional activities. Less is known about p53 acetylation. It has been shown to govern p53 transcriptional activity, selection of growth inhibitory vs. apoptotic gene targets, and biological outcomes in response to diverse cellular insults. Yet recent in vivo evidence from mouse models questions the importance of p53 acetylation (at least at certain sites) as well as canonical p53 functions (cell cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis) to tumor suppression. This review discusses the cumulative findings regarding p53 acetylation, with a focus on the acetyltransferases that modify p53 and the mechanisms regulating their activity. We also evaluate what is known regarding the influence of other post-translational modifications of p53 on its acetylation, and conclude with the current outlook on how p53 acetylation affects tumor suppression. Due to redundancies in p53 control and growing understanding that individual modifications largely fine-tune p53 activity rather than switch it on or off, many questions still remain about the physiological importance of p53 acetylation to its role in preventing cancer.

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          Most cited references 230

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          Mdm2 promotes the rapid degradation of p53.

           Y Haupt,  M Oren,  A Kazaz (1997)
          The p53 tumour-suppressor protein exerts antiproliferative effects, including growth arrest and apoptosis, in response to various types of stress. The activity of p53 is abrogated by mutations that occur frequently in tumours, as well as by several viral and cellular proteins. The Mdm2 oncoprotein is a potent inhibitor of p53. Mdm2 binds the transcriptional activation domain of p53 and blocks its ability to regulate target genes and to exert antiproliferative effects. On the other hand, p53 activates the expression of the mdm2 gene in an autoregulatory feedback loop. The interval between p53 activation and consequent Mdm2 accumulation defines a time window during which p53 exerts its effects. We now report that Mdm2 also promotes the rapid degradation of p53 under conditions in which p53 is otherwise stabilized. This effect of Mdm2 requires binding of p53; moreover, a small domain of p53, encompassing the Mdm2-binding site, confers Mdm2-dependent detstabilization upon heterologous proteins. Raised amounts of Mdm2 strongly repress mutant p53 accumulation in tumour-derived cells. During recovery from DNA damage, maximal Mdm2 induction coincides with rapid p53 loss. We propose that the Mdm2-promoted degradation of p53 provides a new mechanism to ensure effective termination of the p53 signal.
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            Mice deficient for p53 are developmentally normal but susceptible to spontaneous tumours.

            Mutations in the p53 tumour-suppressor gene are the most frequently observed genetic lesions in human cancers. To investigate the role of the p53 gene in mammalian development and tumorigenesis, a null mutation was introduced into the gene by homologous recombination in murine embryonic stem cells. Mice homozygous for the null allele appear normal but are prone to the spontaneous development of a variety of neoplasms by 6 months of age. These observations indicate that a normal p53 gene is dispensable for embryonic development, that its absence predisposes the animal to neoplastic disease, and that an oncogenic mutant form of p53 is not obligatory for the genesis of many types of tumours.
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              Cancer. p53, guardian of the genome.

               D P Lane (1992)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Cancers (Basel)
                Cancers (Basel)
                cancers
                Cancers
                MDPI
                2072-6694
                23 December 2014
                March 2015
                : 7
                : 1
                : 30-69
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacology, The University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA; E-Mail: sara-reed@ 123456uiowa.edu
                [2 ]Medical Scientist Training Program, The University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
                [3 ]Department of Pathology, The University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: dawn-quelle@ 123456uiowa.edu ; Tel.: +1-319-353-5749; Fax: +1-319-335-8930.
                Article
                cancers-07-00030
                10.3390/cancers7010030
                4381250
                25545885
                © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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