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      Toll-like receptor 2 enhances ZO-1-associated intestinal epithelial barrier integrity via protein kinase C

      , ,

      Gastroenterology

      Elsevier BV

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          Abstract

          Protein kinase C (PKC) has been implicated in regulation of intestinal epithelial integrity in response to lumenal bacteria. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) constitutively express Toll-like receptor (TLR)2, which contains multiple potential PKC binding sites. The aim of this study was to determine whether TLR2 may activate PKC in response to specific ligands, thus potentially modulating barrier function in IECs. TLR2 agonist (synthetic bacterial lipopeptide Pam(3)CysSK4, peptidoglycan)-induced activation of PKC-related signaling cascades were assessed by immunoprecipitation, Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and kinase assays-combined with functional transfection studies in the human model IEC lines HT-29 and Caco-2. Transepithelial electrical resistance characterized intestinal epithelial barrier function. Stimulation with TLR2 ligands led to activation (phosphorylation, enzymatic activity, translocation) of specific PKC isoforms (PKCalpha and PKCdelta). Phosphorylation of PKC by TLR2 ligands was blocked specifically by transfection with a TLR2 deletion mutant. Ligand-induced activation of TLR2 greatly enhanced transepithelial resistance in IECs, which was prevented by pretreatment with PKC-selective antagonists. This effect correlated with apical tightening and sealing of tight junction (TJ)-associated ZO-1, which was mediated via PKC in response to TLR2 ligands, whereas morphologic changes of occludin, claudin-1, or actin cytoskeleton were not evident. Downstream the endogenous PKC substrate myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS), but not transcriptional factor activator protein-1 (AP-1), was activated significantly on stimulation. The present study provides evidence that PKC is an essential component of the TLR2 signaling pathway with the physiologic consequence of directly enhancing intestinal epithelial integrity through translocation of ZO-1 on activation.

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          Most cited references 55

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          Nod2 is a general sensor of peptidoglycan through muramyl dipeptide (MDP) detection.

          Nod2 activates the NF-kappaB pathway following intracellular stimulation by bacterial products. Recently, mutations in Nod2 have been shown to be associated with Crohn's disease, suggesting a role for bacteria-host interactions in the etiology of this disorder. We show here that Nod2 is a general sensor of peptidoglycan through the recognition of muramyl dipeptide (MDP), the minimal bioactive peptidoglycan motif common to all bacteria. Moreover, the 3020insC frameshift mutation, the most frequent Nod2 variant associated with Crohn's disease patients, fully abrogates Nod2-dependent detection of peptidoglycan and MDP. Together, these results impact on the understanding of Crohn's disease development. Additionally, the characterization of Nod2 as the first pathogen-recognition molecule that detects MDP will help to unravel the well known biological activities of this immunomodulatory compound.
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            Host recognition of bacterial muramyl dipeptide mediated through NOD2. Implications for Crohn's disease.

            NOD2, a protein associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease, confers responsiveness to bacterial preparations of lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan, but the precise moiety recognized remains elusive. Biochemical and functional analyses identified muramyl dipeptide (MurNAc-L-Ala-D-isoGln) derived from peptidoglycan as the essential structure in bacteria recognized by NOD2. Replacement of L-Ala for D-Ala or D-isoGln for L-isoGln eliminated the ability of muramyl dipeptide to stimulate NOD2, indicating stereoselective recognition. Muramyl dipeptide was recognized by NOD2 but not by TLR2 or co-expression of TLR2 with TLR1 or TLR6. NOD2 mutants associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease were deficient in their recognition of muramyl dipeptide. Notably, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from individuals homozygous for the major disease-associated L1007fsinsC NOD2 mutation responded to lipopolysaccharide but not to synthetic muramyl dipeptide. Thus, NOD2 mediates the host response to bacterial muropeptides derived from peptidoglycan, an activity that is important for protection against Crohn's disease. Because muramyl dipeptide is the essential structure of peptidoglycan required for adjuvant activity, these results also have implications for understanding adjuvant function and effective vaccine development.
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              Mal (MyD88-adapter-like) is required for Toll-like receptor-4 signal transduction.

              The recognition of microbial pathogens by the innate immune system involves Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Different TLRs recognize different pathogen-associated molecular patterns, with TLR-4 mediating the response to lipopolysaccharide from Gram-negative bacteria. All TLRs have a Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain, which is responsible for signal transduction. MyD88 is one such protein that contains a TIR domain. It acts as an adapter, being involved in TLR-2, TLR-4 and TLR-9 signalling; however, our understanding of how TLR-4 signals is incomplete. Here we describe a protein, Mal (MyD88-adapter-like), which joins MyD88 as a cytoplasmic TIR-domain-containing protein in the human genome. Mal activates NF-kappaB, Jun amino-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2. Mal can form homodimers and can also form heterodimers with MyD88. Activation of NF-kappaB by Mal requires IRAK-2, but not IRAK, whereas MyD88 requires both IRAKs. Mal associates with IRAK-2 by means of its TIR domain. A dominant negative form of Mal inhibits NF-kappaB, which is activated by TLR-4 or lipopolysaccharide, but it does not inhibit NF-kappaB activation by IL-1RI or IL-18R. Mal associates with TLR-4. Mal is therefore an adapter in TLR-4 signal transduction.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Gastroenterology
                Gastroenterology
                Elsevier BV
                00165085
                July 2004
                July 2004
                : 127
                : 1
                : 224-238
                Article
                10.1053/j.gastro.2004.04.015
                15236188
                © 2004

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