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      Molecular interactions between the olive and the fruit fly Bactrocera oleae


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          The fruit fly Bactrocera oleae is the primary biotic stressor of cultivated olives, causing direct and indirect damages that significantly reduce both the yield and the quality of olive oil. To study the olive- B. oleae interaction, we conducted transcriptomic and proteomic investigations of the molecular response of the drupe. The identifications of genes and proteins involved in the fruit response were performed using a Suppression Subtractive Hybridisation technique and a combined bi-dimensional electrophoresis/nanoLC-ESI-LIT-MS/MS approach, respectively.


          We identified 196 ESTs and 26 protein spots as differentially expressed in olives with larval feeding tunnels. A bioinformatic analysis of the identified non-redundant EST and protein collection indicated that different molecular processes were affected, such as stress response, phytohormone signalling, transcriptional control and primary metabolism, and that a considerable proportion of the ESTs could not be classified. The altered expression of 20 transcripts was also analysed by real-time PCR, and the most striking differences were further confirmed in the fruit of a different olive variety. We also cloned the full-length coding sequences of two genes, Oe-chitinase I and Oe-PR27, and showed that these are wound-inducible genes and activated by B. oleae punctures.


          This study represents the first report that reveals the molecular players and signalling pathways involved in the interaction between the olive fruit and its most damaging biotic stressor. Drupe response is complex, involving genes and proteins involved in photosynthesis as well as in the production of ROS, the activation of different stress response pathways and the production of compounds involved in direct defence against phytophagous larvae. Among the latter, trypsin inhibitors should play a major role in drupe resistance reaction.

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          Correlation between protein and mRNA abundance in yeast.

          We have determined the relationship between mRNA and protein expression levels for selected genes expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing at mid-log phase. The proteins contained in total yeast cell lysate were separated by high-resolution two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis. Over 150 protein spots were excised and identified by capillary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Protein spots were quantified by metabolic labeling and scintillation counting. Corresponding mRNA levels were calculated from serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) frequency tables (V. E. Velculescu, L. Zhang, W. Zhou, J. Vogelstein, M. A. Basrai, D. E. Bassett, Jr., P. Hieter, B. Vogelstein, and K. W. Kinzler, Cell 88:243-251, 1997). We found that the correlation between mRNA and protein levels was insufficient to predict protein expression levels from quantitative mRNA data. Indeed, for some genes, while the mRNA levels were of the same value the protein levels varied by more than 20-fold. Conversely, invariant steady-state levels of certain proteins were observed with respective mRNA transcript levels that varied by as much as 30-fold. Another interesting observation is that codon bias is not a predictor of either protein or mRNA levels. Our results clearly delineate the technical boundaries of current approaches for quantitative analysis of protein expression and reveal that simple deduction from mRNA transcript analysis is insufficient.
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            CDD: specific functional annotation with the Conserved Domain Database

            NCBI's Conserved Domain Database (CDD) is a collection of multiple sequence alignments and derived database search models, which represent protein domains conserved in molecular evolution. The collection can be accessed at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Structure/cdd/cdd.shtml, and is also part of NCBI's Entrez query and retrieval system, cross-linked to numerous other resources. CDD provides annotation of domain footprints and conserved functional sites on protein sequences. Precalculated domain annotation can be retrieved for protein sequences tracked in NCBI's Entrez system, and CDD's collection of models can be queried with novel protein sequences via the CD-Search service at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Structure/cdd/wrpsb.cgi. Starting with the latest version of CDD, v2.14, information from redundant and homologous domain models is summarized at a superfamily level, and domain annotation on proteins is flagged as either ‘specific’ (identifying molecular function with high confidence) or as ‘non-specific’ (identifying superfamily membership only).
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              Mechanisms of dsRNA uptake in insects and potential of RNAi for pest control: a review.

              RNA interference already proved its usefulness in functional genomic research on insects, but it also has considerable potential for the control of pest insects. For this purpose, the insect should be able to autonomously take up the dsRNA, for example through feeding and digestion in its midgut. In this review we bring together current knowledge on the uptake mechanisms of dsRNA in insects and the potential of RNAi to affect pest insects. At least two pathways for dsRNA uptake in insects are described: the transmembrane channel-mediated uptake mechanism based on Caenorhabditis elegans' SID-1 protein and an 'alternative' endocytosis-mediated uptake mechanism. In the second part of the review dsRNA feeding experiments on insects are brought together for the first time, highlighting the achievement of implementing RNAi in insect control with the first successful experiments in transgenic plants and the diversity of successfully tested insect orders/species and target genes. We conclude with points of discussion and concerns regarding further research on dsRNA uptake mechanisms and the promising application possibilities for RNAi in insect control. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                BMC Plant Biol
                BMC Plant Biol
                BMC Plant Biology
                BioMed Central
                13 June 2012
                : 12
                : 86
                [1 ]Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, Pianta, Ambiente e Produzioni Animali, Universita’ degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Università 100, Portici, Napoli, 80055, Italy
                [2 ]Istituto di Genetica Vegetale, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via della Madonna Alta 130, Perugia, 06128, Italy
                [3 ]Dipartimento di Scienze per la Biologia, la Geologia e l’Ambiente, Universita’ del Sannio, Via dei Mulini 59/A, Benevento, 82100, Italy
                [4 ]Istituto per il Sistema Produzione Animale in Ambiente Mediterraneo, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Argine 1085, Napoli, 80147, Italy
                [5 ]Dipartimento di Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria “F. Silvestri”, Universita’ degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Università 100, Portici, 80055, Italy
                Copyright ©2012 Corrado et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 6 March 2012
                : 22 May 2012
                Research Article

                Plant science & Botany
                olea europea,pest,ssh,proteomics,defence,fruit fly
                Plant science & Botany
                olea europea, pest, ssh, proteomics, defence, fruit fly


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