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      β-Hydroxybutyrate: A Signaling Metabolite

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      Annual Review of Nutrition
      Annual Reviews

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          Abstract

          Various mechanisms in the mammalian body provide resilience against food deprivation and dietary stress. The ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is synthesized in the liver from fatty acids and represents an essential carrier of energy from the liver to peripheral tissues when the supply of glucose is too low for the body's energetic needs, such as during periods of prolonged exercise, starvation, or absence of dietary carbohydrates. In addition to its activity as an energetic metabolite, BHB is increasingly understood to have cellular signaling functions. These signaling functions of BHB broadly link the outside environment to epigenetic gene regulation and cellular function, and their actions may be relevant to a variety of human diseases as well as human aging.

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          Most cited references93

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          Short-chain fatty acids and ketones directly regulate sympathetic nervous system via G protein-coupled receptor 41 (GPR41).

          The maintenance of energy homeostasis is essential for life, and its dysregulation leads to a variety of metabolic disorders. Under a fed condition, mammals use glucose as the main metabolic fuel, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by the colonic bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber also contribute a significant proportion of daily energy requirement. Under ketogenic conditions such as starvation and diabetes, ketone bodies produced in the liver from fatty acids are used as the main energy sources. To balance energy intake, dietary excess and starvation trigger an increase or a decrease in energy expenditure, respectively, by regulating the activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). The regulation of metabolic homeostasis by glucose is well recognized; however, the roles of SCFAs and ketone bodies in maintaining energy balance remain unclear. Here, we show that SCFAs and ketone bodies directly regulate SNS activity via GPR41, a Gi/o protein-coupled receptor for SCFAs, at the level of the sympathetic ganglion. GPR41 was most abundantly expressed in sympathetic ganglia in mouse and humans. SCFA propionate promoted sympathetic outflow via GPR41. On the other hand, a ketone body, β-hydroxybutyrate, produced during starvation or diabetes, suppressed SNS activity by antagonizing GPR41. Pharmacological and siRNA experiments indicated that GPR41-mediated activation of sympathetic neurons involves Gβγ-PLCβ-MAPK signaling. Sympathetic regulation by SCFAs and ketone bodies correlated well with their respective effects on energy consumption. These findings establish that SCFAs and ketone bodies directly regulate GPR41-mediated SNS activity and thereby control body energy expenditure in maintaining metabolic homeostasis.
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            Fasting, Circadian Rhythms, and Time-Restricted Feeding in Healthy Lifespan.

            Most animals alternate periods of feeding with periods of fasting often coinciding with sleep. Upon >24 hr of fasting, humans, rodents, and other mammals enter alternative metabolic phases, which rely less on glucose and more on ketone body-like carbon sources. Both intermittent and periodic fasting result in benefits ranging from the prevention to the enhanced treatment of diseases. Similarly, time-restricted feeding (TRF), in which food consumption is restricted to certain hours of the day, allows the daily fasting period to last >12 hr, thus imparting pleiotropic benefits. Understanding the mechanistic link between nutrients and the fasting benefits is leading to the identification of fasting-mimicking diets (FMDs) that achieve changes similar to those caused by fasting. Given the pleiotropic and sustained benefits of TRF and FMDs, both basic science and translational research are warranted to develop fasting-associated interventions into feasible, effective, and inexpensive treatments with the potential to improve healthspan.
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              The Rpd3/Hda1 family of lysine deacetylases: from bacteria and yeast to mice and men.

              Protein lysine deacetylases have a pivotal role in numerous biological processes and can be divided into the Rpd3/Hda1 and sirtuin families, each having members in diverse organisms including prokaryotes. In vertebrates, the Rpd3/Hda1 family contains 11 members, traditionally referred to as histone deacetylases (HDAC) 1-11, which are further grouped into classes I, II and IV. Whereas most class I HDACs are subunits of multiprotein nuclear complexes that are crucial for transcriptional repression and epigenetic landscaping, class II members regulate cytoplasmic processes or function as signal transducers that shuttle between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Little is known about class IV HDAC11, although its evolutionary conservation implies a fundamental role in various organisms.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Annual Review of Nutrition
                Annu. Rev. Nutr.
                Annual Reviews
                0199-9885
                1545-4312
                August 21 2017
                August 21 2017
                : 37
                : 1
                : 51-76
                Article
                10.1146/annurev-nutr-071816-064916
                6640868
                28826372
                ee0ae735-48f4-4732-9101-8fc71fc8c2ec
                © 2017

                http://www.annualreviews.org/licenses/tdm

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