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      The Short-Term Effects of Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration, for Treating Gastric Variceal Bleeding, on Portal Hypertensive Changes: a CT Evaluation

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          Abstract

          Objective

          We wanted to evaluate the short-term effects of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) for treating gastric variceal bleeding, in terms of the portal hypertensive changes, by comparing CT scans.

          Materials and Methods

          We enrolled 27 patients who underwent BRTO for gastric variceal bleeding and they had CT scans performed just before and after BRTO. The pre- and post-procedural CT scans were retrospectively compared by two radiologists working in consensus to evaluate the short-term effects of BRTO on the subsequent portal hypertensive changes, including ascites, splenomegaly, portosystemic collaterals (other than gastrorenal shunt), the gall bladder (GB) edema and the intestinal wall edema. Statistical differences were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test and the paired t-test.

          Results

          Following BRTO, ascites developed or was aggravated in 22 (82%) of 27 patients and it was improved in two patients; the median spleen volumes increased from 438.2 cm 3 to 580.8 cm 3, and based on a 15% volume change cut-off value, splenic enlargement occurred in 15 (56%) of the 27 patients. The development of new collaterals or worsening of existing collaterals was not observed in any patient. GB wall edema developed or was aggravated in four of 23 patients and this disappeared or improved in five; intestinal wall edema developed or was aggravated in nine of 27 patients, and this disappeared or improved in five. Statistically, we found significant differences for ascites and the splenic volumes before and after BRTO ( p = 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively).

          Conclusion

          Some portal hypertensive changes, including ascites and splenomegaly, can be aggravated shortly after BRTO.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Retrograde transvenous obliteration of gastric varices.

           S Hirota,  M Tomita,  M Sako (1999)
          To evaluate the clinical efficacy, techniques, and complications associated with balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration of gastric varices. Between December 1994 and November 1997, balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration was performed on 20 patients with gastric varices in danger of rupture and with gastrorenal shunts; three patients also had hepatic encephalopathy. The sclerosant was injected into the gastric varices during balloon occlusion. The degree of progression of the gastric varices and of collateral veins was classified into five grades, with grade 1 being least progression and grade 5 most progression; collateral veins that had developed were treated with embolization. Follow-up consisted of fiberoptic endoscopy and computed tomography. Technical success was achieved in all patients. Occlusion of collateral veins was essential for the occlusion of gastric varices with a grade greater than grade 2. The clinical symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy in the three patients improved remarkably. Follow-up endoscopy 3 months after the procedure revealed the disappearance of gastric varices in 15 patients and reduced variceal size in five. During the follow-up period, 19 patients had no recurrence of gastric varices; three patients had aggravation of the esophageal varices. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration is a feasible alternative to a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for patients with large gastrorenal shunts or hepatic encephalopathy (or both).
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            Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration of gastric varices with gastrorenal shunt: long-term follow-up in 78 patients.

            Our aim was to evaluate the long-term clinical results after balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) for gastric varices with spontaneous gastrorenal shunt. A total of 78 patients with cirrhosis and with gastric varices, successfully treated by B-RTO, were enrolled in this study. Recurrence and bleeding of gastric varices and worsening of esophageal varices were endoscopically evaluated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the prognostic factors for worsening of esophageal varices and survival. Recurrence of gastric varices was found in two patients; the 5-year recurrence rate was 2.7%. Bleeding of gastric varices occurred in only one patient after B-RTO; the 5-year bleeding rate was 1.5%. Worsening of esophageal varices was observed in 29 patients, and the worsening rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 27%, 58%, and 66%, respectively. These esophageal varices were endoscopically treated to prevent rupture. Multivariate analysis showed the presence of esophageal varices before B-RTO was a prognostic factor for worsening (relative risk, 4.956). At a median follow-up of 700 days (range, 137-2,339 days), the survival rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 93%, 76%, and 54%, respectively. The prognostic factors associated with survival were presence of hepatocellular carcinoma (relative risk, 24.342) and the Child-Pugh classification (relative risk, 5.780). B-RTO is an effective method for gastric varices with gastrorenal shunt and provides lower recurrence and bleeding rates. We believe that B-RTO can become a standard treatment for gastric varices with gastrorenal shunt, although treatment of worsened esophageal varices may be necessary after B-RTO.
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              Long-term results of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration for the treatment of gastric varices and hepatic encephalopathy.

              To evaluate the long-term results of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) for the treatment of gastric varices (GV) and hepatic encephalopathy. A total of 43 patients who had undergone B-RTO were evaluated, 32 with GV, two with hepatic encephalopathy, and nine with both. All but one had been consecutively followed up with gastrointestinal endoscopy for more than 1 year (3-60 months; mean, 30.44 months). Collateral veins of gastric varices were graded using balloon-occluded retrograde left adrenal venography. The relation of both worsening of esophageal varices (EV) and improved Child-Pugh score after B-RTO to the grades of collateral vein development was analyzed. The relapse-free survival and the prognostic factors for survival after B-RTO were also assessed. GV disappeared or decreased markedly in size, and hepatic encephalopathy was completely cured in all patients. Improvement in Child-Pugh score was observed in 21 patient (50.0%) 6 months after B-RTO, but in only 11 patients (25.6%) 1 year after B-RTO. Worsening of EV was seen in eight patients and was related to a worsened grade of collateral veins. Cumulative relapse-free survival rate was 90.8% at 1 year and 87.4% at 3 years after B-RTO. The most significant prognostic factor was Child-Pugh classification (relative risk: 4.16) B-RTO is a safe and effective treatment for patients with GV and hepatic encephalopathy. The most important prognostic factors are the extent of Child-Pugh classification.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Korean J Radiol
                KJR
                Korean Journal of Radiology
                The Korean Radiological Society
                1229-6929
                2005-8330
                Nov-Dec 2007
                20 December 2007
                : 8
                : 6
                : 520-530
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710, Korea.
                [2 ]Department of Radiology, Kangwon National University College of Medicine, Kangwon-do 200-701, Korea.
                Author notes
                Address reprint requests to: Sung Wook Shin, MD, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Ilwon-dong 50, Kangnam-gu, Seoul 135-710, Korea. Tel. (822) 3410-2518, Fax. (822) 3410-2559, swshin@ 123456smc.samsung.co.kr
                Article
                10.3348/kjr.2007.8.6.520
                2627455
                18071283
                Copyright © 2007 The Korean Radiological Society

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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