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      Saposhnikoviae divaricata: a phytochemical, pharmacological, and pharmacokinetic review

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          Abstract

          Saposhnikoviae divaricata (Turcz.) Schischk (SD) is a traditional Chinese herb commonly used to treat clinical conditions such as rheumatism and allergic rhinitis. This review article evaluates a collection of works on in vitro and biochemical studies of SD. The discourse on the diverse class of chromones and coumarins in SD offers an insight to the pharmacological effects of these bioactive constituents as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, immunoregulatory, antioxidative, and anti-proliferative agents. It is highlighted that there is a structural relationship between the constituents and bioactive activities, which in effect provides a valid reasoning and reaffirm the use of SD in the treatment of the pathologies in Chinese medicine.

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          Most cited references 34

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          The pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.

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            New facets of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 as cell surface transducers: outside-in signaling and relationship to tumor progression.

            This review focuses on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-2 (gelatinase A) and -9 (gelatinase B), both of which are cancer-associated, secreted, zinc-dependent endopeptidases. Gelatinases cleave many different targets (extracellular matrix, cytokines, growth factors, chemokines and cytokine/growth factor receptors) that in turn regulate key signaling pathways in cell growth, migration, invasion, inflammation and angiogenesis. Interactions with cell surface integral membrane proteins (CD44, αVβ/αβ1/αβ2 integrins and Ku protein) can occur through the gelatinases' active site or hemopexin-like C-terminal domain. This review evaluates the recent literature on the non-enzymatic, signal transduction roles of surface-bound gelatinases and their subsequent effects on cell survival, migration and angiogenesis. Gelatinases have long been drug targets. The current status of gelatinase inhibitors as anticancer agents and their failure in the clinic is discussed in light of these new data on the gelatinases' roles as cell surface transducers - data that may lead to the design and development of novel, gelatinase-targeting inhibitors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              Coumarins: old compounds with novel promising therapeutic perspectives.

              Natural as well as synthetic coumarins have recently drawn much attention due to its broad pharmacological activities. Many coumarins and their derivatives exert anti-coagulant, anti-tumor, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects, as well as anti-microbial and enzyme inhibition properties. The recognition of key structural features within coumarin family is crucial for the design and development of new analogues with improved activity and for the characterization of their mechanism of action and potential side effects. The different substituents in the coumarin nucleus strongly influence the biological activity of the resulting derivatives. Although some coumarins have been already characterized to evoke a particular biological activity, the challenge would be the design and synthesis of new derivatives with high specific activity for other pharmacological targets and define their mechanism of action to achieve new therapeutic drugs. The present review highlights the current progress in the development of coumarin scaffolds for drug discovery as novel anti-cancer agents. The major challenges about coumarins include the translation of current knowledge into new potential lead compounds and the repositioning of known compounds for the treatment of cancer.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Chin J Nat Med
                Chin J Nat Med
                Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
                China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V.
                2095-6975
                1875-5364
                18 May 2017
                April 2017
                18 May 2017
                : 15
                : 4
                : 255-264
                Affiliations
                [a ]School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, RMIT University, Victoria 3001, Australia
                [b ]School of Science, RMIT University, Victoria 3001, Australia
                Author notes
                [* ] Corresponding author Tel: 61-3-9925-7175, Fax: 61-3-9925-7178 angela.yang@ 123456rmit.edu.au
                Article
                S1875-5364(17)30042-0
                10.1016/S1875-5364(17)30042-0
                7128302
                28527510
                © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University

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