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      Immunoregulatory Effect of Acanthopanax trifoliatus (L.) Merr. Polysaccharide on T1DM Mice


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          Acanthopanax trifoliatus (L.) Merr. is a medicinal plant found in Southeast Asia, and its young leaves and shoots are consumed as a vegetable. The main bioactive components of this herb are polysaccharides that have significant anti-diabetic effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunoregulatory effect of A. trifoliatus (L.) Merr. polysaccharide (ATMP) on a mouse model of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).


          The monosaccharide composition and mean molecular mass of ATMP were determined by HPLC and HPGPC. T1DM was induced in mice using STZ, and 35, 70 and 140mg/kg ATMP was administered daily via the intragastric route for six weeks. Untreated and metformin-treated positive control groups were also included. The body weight of the mice, food and water intake and fasting glucose levels were monitored throughout the 6-week regimen. Histological changes in the pancreas and spleen were analyzed by H&E staining. Oral glucose tolerance was evaluated with the appropriate test. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) mRNA and protein levels in the spleen were measured by quantitative real time PCR and Western blotting. IL-10, IFN-γ and insulin levels in the sera were determined by ELISA. The CD4 + and CD8 +T cells in spleen tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC).


          ATMP and metformin significantly decreased fasting blood glucose, and the food and water intake after 6 weeks of treatment. In contrast, serum insulin levels, glucose tolerance and body weight improved considerably in the high and medium-dose ATMP and metformin groups. T1DM was associated with pancreatic and splenic tissue damage. The high dose (140mg/kg) of ATMP reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells into the pancreas and restored the structure of islet β-cells in the diabetic mice. Consistent with this, 35, 70 and 140mg/kg ATMP increased IL-10 levels and decreased that of IFN-γ, thereby restoring the CD4 +/CD8 + and Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio. At the molecular level, high-dose ATMP up-regulated PPARγ in the splenic cells.


          ATMP exerts a hypoglycemic effect in diabetic mice by restoring the immune balance in the spleen.

          Most cited references40

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          PPARγ and the global map of adipogenesis and beyond.

          Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a member of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of ligand-dependent transcription factors (TFs) and function as a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation and metabolism. We review recent breakthroughs in the understanding of PPARγ gene regulation and function in the chromatin context. It is now clear that multiple TFs team up to induce PPARγ during adipogenesis, and that other TFs cooperate with PPARγ to ensure adipocyte-specific genomic binding and function. We discuss how this differs in other PPARγ-expressing cells such as macrophages and how these genome-wide mechanisms are preserved across species despite modest conservation of specific binding sites. These emerging considerations inform our understanding of PPARγ function as well as of adipocyte development and physiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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            PPARgamma and PPARdelta negatively regulate specific subsets of lipopolysaccharide and IFN-gamma target genes in macrophages.

            Natural and synthetic agonists of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) regulate adipocyte differentiation, glucose homeostasis, and inflammatory responses. Although effects on adipogenesis and glucose metabolism are genetically linked to PPARgamma, the PPARgamma dependence of antiinflammatory responses of these substances is less clear. Here, we have used a combination of mRNA expression profiling and conditional disruption of the PPARgamma gene in mice to characterize programs of transcriptional activation and repression by PPARgamma agonists in elicited peritoneal macrophages. Natural and synthetic PPARgamma agonists, including the thiazolidinedione rosiglitazone (Ro), modestly induced the expression of a surprisingly small number of genes, several of which were also induced by a specific PPARdelta agonist. The majority of these genes encode proteins involved in lipid homeostasis. In contrast, Ro inhibited induction of broad subsets of lipopolysaccharide and IFN-gamma target genes in a gene-specific and PPARgamma-dependent manner. At high concentrations, Ro inhibited induction of lipopolysaccharide target genes in PPARgamma-deficient macrophages, at least in part by activating PPARdelta. These studies establish overlapping transactivation and transrepression functions of PPARgamma and PPARdelta in macrophages and suggest that a major transcriptional role of PPARgamma is negative regulation of specific subsets of genes that are activated by T helper 1 cytokines and pathogenic molecules that signal through pattern recognition receptors. These findings support a physiological role of PPARgamma in regulating both native and acquired immune responses.
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              PPARγ signaling and emerging opportunities for improved therapeutics

              Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a ligand-activated nuclear receptor that regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, endothelial function and inflammation. Rosiglitazone (RGZ) and other thiazolidinedione (TZD) synthetic ligands of PPARγ are insulin sensitizers that have been used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, undesirable side effects including weight gain, fluid retention, bone loss, congestive heart failure, and a possible increased risk of myocardial infarction and bladder cancer, have limited the use of TZDs. Therefore, there is a need to better understand PPARγ signaling and to develop safer and more effective PPARγ-directed therapeutics. In addition to PPARγ itself, many PPARγ ligands including TZDs bind to and activate G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40), also known as free fatty acid receptor 1. GPR40 signaling activates stress kinase pathways that ultimately regulate downstream PPARγ responses. Recent studies in human endothelial cells have demonstrated that RGZ activation of GPR40 is essential to the optimal propagation of PPARγ genomic signaling. RGZ/GPR40/p38 MAPK signaling induces and activates PPARγ co-activator-1α, and recruits E1A binding protein p300 to the promoters of target genes, markedly enhancing PPARγ-dependent transcription. Therefore in endothelium, GPR40 and PPARγ function as an integrated signaling pathway. However, GPR40 can also activate ERK1/2, a proinflammatory kinase that directly phosphorylates and inactivates PPARγ. Thus the role of GPR40 in PPARγ signaling may have important implications for drug development. Ligands that strongly activate PPARγ, but do not bind to or activate GPR40 may be safer than currently approved PPARγ agonists. Alternatively, biased GPR40 agonists might be sought that activate both p38 MAPK and PPARγ, but not ERK1/2, avoiding its harmful effects on PPARγ signaling, insulin resistance and inflammation. Such next generation drugs might be useful in treating not only type 2 diabetes, but also diverse chronic and acute forms of vascular inflammation such as atherosclerosis and septic shock.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                18 June 2021
                : 15
                : 2629-2639
                [1 ]School of Pharmacy, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University , Guangzhou, 510006, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Pharmacy, Xiamen Children's Hospital, Children's Hospital of Fudan University at Xiamen , Xiamen, 361006, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yufang Pan; Huiwen Yang School of Pharmacy, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University , Guangzhou, 510006, People’s Republic of China Email p39352011@163.com; halleyyang@163.com
                © 2021 Li et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                : 06 March 2021
                : 04 May 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 2, References: 40, Pages: 11
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                acanthopanax trifoliatus (l.) merr,type 1 diabetes mellitus,pparγ,cd4+ t cells,cd8+ t cells,immunoregulation


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