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      Methanol leaf extract of Actinodaphne sesquipedalis (Lauraceae) enhances gastric defense against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats

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          Actinodaphne sesquipedalis Hook. F. Var. Glabra (Kochummen), also known as “Medang payung” by the Malay people, belongs to the Lauraceae family. In this study, methanol leaf extract of A. sesquipedalis was investigated for their acute toxicity and gastroprotective effects to reduce ulcers in rat stomachs induced by ethanol. The rats were assigned to one of five groups: normal group (group 1), ulcer group (group 2), control positive drug group (group 3) and two experimental groups treated with 150 mg/kg (group 4) and 300 mg/kg (group 5) of leaf extract. The rats were sacrificed an hour after pretreatment with extracts, and their stomach homogenates and tissues were collected for further evaluation. Macroscopic and histological analyses showed that gastric ulcers in rats pretreated with the extract were significantly reduced to an extent that it allowed leukocytes penetration of the gastric walls compared with the ulcer group. In addition, an ulcer inhibition rate of >70% was detected in rats treated with both doses of A. sesquipedalis extract, showing a notable protection of gastric layer. Severe destruction of gastric mucosa was prevented with a high production of mucus and pH gastric contents in both omeprazole-treated and extract-treated groups. Meanwhile, an increase in glycoprotein uptake was observed in pretreated rats through accumulation of magenta color in Periodic Acid Schiff staining assay. Analysis of gastric homogenate from pretreated rats showed a reduction of malondialdehyde and elevation of nitric oxide, glutathione, prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase and protein concentration levels in comparison with group 2. Suppression of apoptosis in gastric tissues by upregulation of Hsp70 protein and downregulation of Bax protein was also observed in rats pretreated with extract. Consistent results of a reduction of gastric ulcer and the protection of gastric wall were obtained for rats pretreated with A. sesquipedalis extract, which showed its prominent gastroprotective potential in rats’ stomach against ethanol-induced ulcer.

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              Mucus is tenacious. It sticks to most particles, preventing their penetration to the epithelial surface. Multiple low-affinity hydrophobic interactions play a major role in these adhesive interactions. Mucus gel is also shear-thinning, making it an excellent lubricant that ensures an unstirred layer of mucus remains adherent to the epithelial surface. Thus nanoparticles (NP) must diffuse readily through the unstirred adherent layer if they are to contact epithelial cells efficiently. This article reviews some of the physiological and biochemical properties that form the mucus barrier. Capsid viruses can diffuse through mucus as rapidly as through water and thereby penetrate to the epithelium even though they have to diffuse 'upstream' through mucus that is being continuously secreted. These viruses are smaller than the mucus mesh spacing, and have surfaces that do not stick to mucus. They form a useful model for developing NP for mucosal drug delivery.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                04 May 2017
                : 11
                : 1353-1365
                [1 ]Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science
                [2 ]Centre for Foundation Studies in Science
                [3 ]Department of Pharmacy
                [4 ]Department of Microbiology
                [5 ]Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine
                [6 ]Center for Natural Products and Drug Research (CENAR)
                [7 ]Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Hanita Omar, Centre for Foundation Studies in Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Tel +60 3 7967 5980, Fax +60 3 7957 6478, Email hanita74@ 123456um.edu.my
                © 2017 Omar et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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