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      Oral microbial dysbiosis in patients with Kostmann syndrome

      1 , 2 , 3 , 1

      Journal of Medical Microbiology

      Microbiology Society

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          Most cited references 20

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          Periodontitis: a polymicrobial disruption of host homeostasis.

          Periodontitis, or gum disease, affects millions of people each year. Although it is associated with a defined microbial composition found on the surface of the tooth and tooth root, the contribution of bacteria to disease progression is poorly understood. Commensal bacteria probably induce a protective response that prevents the host from developing disease. However, several bacterial species found in plaque (the 'red-complex' bacteria: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola) use various mechanisms to interfere with host defence mechanisms. Furthermore, disease may result from 'community-based' attack on the host. Here, I describe the interaction of the host immune system with the oral bacteria in healthy states and in diseased states.
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            The subgingival microbiome in health and periodontitis and its relationship with community biomass and inflammation.

            The goals of this study were to better understand the ecology of oral subgingival communities in health and periodontitis and elucidate the relationship between inflammation and the subgingival microbiome. Accordingly, we used 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene libraries and quantitative PCR to characterize the subgingival microbiome of 22 subjects with chronic periodontitis. Each subject was sampled at two sites with similar periodontal destruction but differing in the presence of bleeding, a clinical indicator of increased inflammation. Communities in periodontitis were also compared with those from 10 healthy individuals. In periodontitis, presence of bleeding was not associated with different α-diversity or with a distinct microbiome, however, bleeding sites showed higher total bacterial load. In contrast, communities in health and periodontitis largely differed, with higher diversity and biomass in periodontitis. Shifts in community structure from health to periodontitis resembled ecological succession, with emergence of newly dominant taxa in periodontitis without replacement of primary health-associated species. That is, periodontitis communities had higher proportions of Spirochetes, Synergistetes, Firmicutes and Chloroflexi, among other taxa, while the proportions of Actinobacteria, particularly Actinomyces, were higher in health. Total Actinomyces load, however, remained constant from health to periodontitis. Moreover, an association existed between biomass and community structure in periodontitis, with the proportion of specific taxa correlating with bacterial load. Our study provides a global-scale framework for the ecological events in subgingival communities that underline the development of periodontitis. The association, in periodontitis, between inflammation, community biomass and community structure and their role in disease progression warrant further investigation.
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              Saliva as a diagnostic fluid.

              Salivary diagnostics is a dynamic and emerging field utilizing nanotechnology and molecular diagnostics to aid in the diagnosis of oral and systemic diseases. In this article the author critically reviews the latest advances using oral biomarkers for disease detection. The use of oral fluids is broadening perspectives in clinical diagnosis, disease monitoring, and decision making for patient care. Important elements determining the future possibilities and challenges in this field are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Medical Microbiology
                Microbiology Society
                0022-2615
                1473-5644
                April 01 2019
                April 01 2019
                : 68
                : 4
                : 609-615
                Affiliations
                [1 ] 1 Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey
                [2 ] 2 Department of Pedodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey
                [3 ] 3 Department of Molecular Biology of Genetics, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Istanbul Medeniyet University, Istanbul, Turkey
                Article
                10.1099/jmm.0.000964
                © 2019

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