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      Development and Verification of a Web Board Game Scale


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          Our previous study suggested that monitoring online board gamers may be an efficient approach to curb illegal gambling. We aimed to invent and validate a behavioral scale for assessing the risk of problematic web-based board gaming.


          The sample included 300 Korean adults, representing a response rate of 3.1%. All participants were asked to complete a set of questionnaires, which included questions on demographic variables, patterns of online board gaming, and the web-based board game scale score. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to determine whether the items on the new behavioral scale would indicate a risk of pathologic web-based board gaming behavior.


          The internal consistency of the 17-item scale was high (Cronbach’s α=0.89). The test-retest reliability of the 17-item scale in a randomly selected sample of 100 participants in 2 weeks was r=0.77 (p<0.001). The criterion-related validity based on a comparison of the total behavioral scale scores between the high-risk group and low-risk group was relatively high. The data obtained from the 300 participants were acceptable for a factor analysis. After removing 7 items from the 17-item scale, internal consistency (Cronbach’s α) of the 10-item scale increased to 0.936.


          These results showed that the 10-item version of the scale appeared to be more valid than the 17-item version. We suggest that the 10-item web-based board game behavioral scale is a useful tool for assessing the risk of pathologic web-based board gaming.

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          Item-wording and the dimensionality of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: do they matter?

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            Online Gambling Addiction: the Relationship Between Internet Gambling and Disordered Gambling

            One of the most significant changes to the gambling environment in the past 15 years has been the increased availability of Internet gambling, including mobile; Internet gambling is the fastest growing mode of gambling and is changing the way that gamblers engage with this activity. Due to the high level of accessibility, immersive interface and ease at which money can be spent, concerns have been expressed that Internet gambling may increase rates of disordered gambling. The current paper aimed to provide an overview of the research to date as well as highlight new and interesting findings relevant to Internet gambling addiction. A comprehensive review of the existing literature was conducted to provide an overview of significant trends and developments in research that relates to disordered Internet gambling. This paper presents research to inform a greater understanding of adult participation in Internet gambling, features of this interface that may impact problem severity, the relationship between Internet gambling and related problems, as well as considering the role of the wider spectrum of gambling behaviour and relevant individual factors that moderate this relationship.
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              Examining the Effect of Reverse Worded Items on the Factor Structure of the Need for Cognition Scale

              Reverse worded (RW) items are often used to reduce or eliminate acquiescence bias, but there is a rising concern about their harmful effects on the covariance structure of the scale. Therefore, results obtained via traditional covariance analyses may be distorted. This study examined the effect of the RW items on the factor structure of the abbreviated 18-item Need for Cognition (NFC) scale using confirmatory factor analysis. We modified the scale to create three revised versions, varying from no RW items to all RW items. We also manipulated the type of the RW items (polar opposite vs. negated). To each of the four scales, we fit four previously developed models. The four models included a 1-factor model, a 2-factor model distinguishing between positively worded (PW) items and RW items, and two 2-factor models, each with one substantive factor and one method factor. Results showed that the number and type of the RW items affected the factor structure of the NFC scale. Consistent with previous research findings, for the original NFC scale, which contains both PW and RW items, the 1-factor model did not have good fit. In contrast, for the revised scales that had no RW items or all RW items, the 1-factor model had reasonably good fit. In addition, for the scale with polar opposite and negated RW items, the factor model with a method factor among the polar opposite items had considerably better fit than the 1-factor model.

                Author and article information

                Psychiatry Investig
                Psychiatry Investig
                Psychiatry Investigation
                Korean Neuropsychiatric Association
                February 2020
                7 February 2020
                : 17
                : 2
                : 106-113
                [1 ]Department of Psychiatry, Chung Ang University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [2 ]School of Social Welfare, Soongsil University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Doug Hyun Han, MD, PhD Department of Psychiatry, Chung Ang University Hospital, 102 Heukseok-ro, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 06973, Republic of Korea Tel: +82-2-6299-3132, Fax: +82-2-825-8474, E-mail: hduk70@ 123456gmail.com
                Author information
                Copyright © 2020 Korean Neuropsychiatric Association

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 15 July 2019
                : 2 September 2019
                : 21 October 2019
                Original Article

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                web-based board game,exploratory factor analysis,reliability,validity


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