15 November 2017
Neuronal cell death is a normal process during central nervous system (CNS) development and is also involved in the death of motor neurons in diverse spinal motor neuron degenerative diseases. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of secretory factors released from human gingival mesenchymal stem cells (hGMSCs) in mechanically injured murine motor-neuron-like NSC-34 cells. The cells were exposed to scratch injury and the markers for apoptosis and oxidative stress were examined. Immunocytochemistry results showed that proapoptotic markers cleaved caspase-3 and Bax were elevated while anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was suppressed in scratch-injured NSC-34 cells. Oxidative stress markers SOD-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Cox-2, and proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were activated. Conditioned medium (CM) derived from hGMSCs (hGMSC-CM) significantly blocked the cell death by suppressing SOD-1, iNOS, TNF-α, cleaved caspase-3, and Bax. Bcl-2 and anti-inflammatory cytokine anti-interleukin 10 (IL-10) were increased in hGMSC-CM-treated injured cells. Moreover, hGMSC-CM treatment upregulated neurotrophins anti-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and NT3. Western blot data of hGMSC-CM revealed the presence of neurotrophins nerve growth factor (NGF), NT3, anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10, and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), suggesting their positive role to elicit neuroprotection. Our results propose that hGMSC-CM may serve as a simple and potential autologous therapeutic tool to treat motor neuron injury.