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      Conditioned medium from human gingival mesenchymal stem cells protects motor-neuron-like NSC-34 cells against scratch-injury-induced cell death

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          Abstract

          Neuronal cell death is a normal process during central nervous system (CNS) development and is also involved in the death of motor neurons in diverse spinal motor neuron degenerative diseases. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of secretory factors released from human gingival mesenchymal stem cells (hGMSCs) in mechanically injured murine motor-neuron-like NSC-34 cells. The cells were exposed to scratch injury and the markers for apoptosis and oxidative stress were examined. Immunocytochemistry results showed that proapoptotic markers cleaved caspase-3 and Bax were elevated while anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was suppressed in scratch-injured NSC-34 cells. Oxidative stress markers SOD-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Cox-2, and proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were activated. Conditioned medium (CM) derived from hGMSCs (hGMSC-CM) significantly blocked the cell death by suppressing SOD-1, iNOS, TNF-α, cleaved caspase-3, and Bax. Bcl-2 and anti-inflammatory cytokine anti-interleukin 10 (IL-10) were increased in hGMSC-CM-treated injured cells. Moreover, hGMSC-CM treatment upregulated neurotrophins anti-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and NT3. Western blot data of hGMSC-CM revealed the presence of neurotrophins nerve growth factor (NGF), NT3, anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10, and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), suggesting their positive role to elicit neuroprotection. Our results propose that hGMSC-CM may serve as a simple and potential autologous therapeutic tool to treat motor neuron injury.

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          Most cited references 37

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          The current landscape of the mesenchymal stromal cell secretome: A new paradigm for cell-free regeneration.

          The unique properties of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) to self-renew and their multipotentiality have rendered them attractive to researchers and clinicians. In addition to the differentiation potential, the broad repertoire of secreted trophic factors (cytokines) exhibiting diverse functions such as immunomodulation, anti-inflammatory activity, angiogenesis and anti-apoptotic, commonly referred to as the MSC secretome, has gained immense attention in the past few years. There is enough evidence to show that the one important pathway by which MSCs participate in tissue repair and regeneration is through its secretome. Concurrently, a large body of MSC research has focused on characterization of the MSC secretome; this includes both soluble factors and factors released in extracellular vesicles, for example, exosomes and microvesicles. This review provides an overview of our current understanding of the MSC secretome with respect to their potential clinical applications.
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            Apoptosis in development.

            Essential to the construction, maintenance and repair of tissues is the ability to induce suicide of supernumerary, misplaced or damaged cells with high specificity and efficiency. Study of three principal organisms--the nematode, fruitfly and mouse--indicate that cell suicide is implemented through the activation of an evolutionarily conserved molecular programme intrinsic to all metazoan cells. Dysfunctions in the regulation or execution of cell suicide are implicated in a wide range of developmental abnormalities and diseases.
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              Dental mesenchymal stem cells.

               Paul Sharpe (2016)
              Mammalian teeth harbour mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which contribute to tooth growth and repair. These dental MSCs possess many in vitro features of bone marrow-derived MSCs, including clonogenicity, expression of certain markers, and following stimulation, differentiation into cells that have the characteristics of osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Teeth and their support tissues provide not only an easily accessible source of MSCs but also a tractable model system to study their function and properties in vivo In addition, the accessibility of teeth together with their clinical relevance provides a valuable opportunity to test stem cell-based treatments for dental disorders. This Review outlines some recent discoveries in dental MSC function and behaviour and discusses how these and other advances are paving the way for the development of new biologically based dental therapies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol
                Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol
                IJI
                spiji
                International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
                SAGE Publications (Sage UK: London, England )
                0394-6320
                2058-7384
                15 November 2017
                December 2017
                : 30
                : 4
                : 383-394
                Affiliations
                [1 ]IRCCS Centro Neurolesi “Bonino-Pulejo,” Messina, Italy
                [2 ]Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine Laboratory, Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, “G. d’Annunzio” University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy
                Author notes
                Emanuela Mazzon, IRCCS Centro Neurolesi “Bonino-Pulejo,” Via Provinciale Palermo, contrada Casazza, 98124 Messina, Italy. Email: emazzon.irccs@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                10.1177_0394632017740976
                10.1177/0394632017740976
                5806806
                29140156
                © The Author(s) 2017

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License ( http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages ( https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).

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