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      Milano Summer Particulate Matter (PM10) Triggers Lung Inflammation and Extra Pulmonary Adverse Events in Mice

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          Abstract

          Recent studies have suggested a link between particulate matter (PM) exposure and increased mortality and morbidity associated with pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases; accumulating evidences point to a new role for air pollution in CNS diseases. The purpose of our study is to investigate PM10sum effects on lungs and extra pulmonary tissues. Milano PM10sum has been intratracheally instilled into BALB/c mice. Broncho Alveolar Lavage fluid, lung parenchyma, heart and brain were screened for markers of inflammation (cell counts, cytokines, ET-1, HO-1, MPO, iNOS), cytotoxicity (LDH, ALP, Hsp70, Caspase8-p18, Caspase3-p17) for a putative pro-carcinogenic marker (Cyp1B1) and for TLR4 pathway activation. Brain was also investigated for CD68, TNF-α, GFAP. In blood, cell counts were performed while plasma was screened for endothelial activation (sP-selectin, ET-1) and for inflammation markers (TNF-α, MIP-2, IL-1β, MPO). Genes up-regulation (HMOX1, Cyp1B1, IL-1β, MIP-2, MPO) and miR-21 have been investigated in lungs and blood. Inflammation in the respiratory tract of PM10sum-treated mice has been confirmed in BALf and lung parenchyma by increased PMNs percentage, increased ET-1, MPO and cytokines levels. A systemic spreading of lung inflammation in PM10sum-treated mice has been related to the increased blood total cell count and neutrophils percentage, as well as to increased blood MPO. The blood-endothelium interface activation has been confirmed by significant increases of plasma ET-1 and sP-selectin. Furthermore PM10sum induced heart endothelial activation and PAHs metabolism, proved by increased ET-1 and Cyp1B1 levels. Moreover, PM10sum causes an increase in brain HO-1 and ET-1. These results state the translocation of inflammation mediators, ultrafine particles, LPS, metals associated to PM10sum, from lungs to bloodstream, thus triggering a systemic reaction, mainly involving heart and brain. Our results provided additional insight into the toxicity of PM10sum and could facilitate shedding light on mechanisms underlying the development of urban air pollution related diseases.

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          Most cited references 62

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          Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

          In 2004, the first American Heart Association scientific statement on "Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease" concluded that exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In the interim, numerous studies have expanded our understanding of this association and further elucidated the physiological and molecular mechanisms involved. The main objective of this updated American Heart Association scientific statement is to provide a comprehensive review of the new evidence linking PM exposure with cardiovascular disease, with a specific focus on highlighting the clinical implications for researchers and healthcare providers. The writing group also sought to provide expert consensus opinions on many aspects of the current state of science and updated suggestions for areas of future research. On the basis of the findings of this review, several new conclusions were reached, including the following: Exposure to PM <2.5 microm in diameter (PM(2.5)) over a few hours to weeks can trigger cardiovascular disease-related mortality and nonfatal events; longer-term exposure (eg, a few years) increases the risk for cardiovascular mortality to an even greater extent than exposures over a few days and reduces life expectancy within more highly exposed segments of the population by several months to a few years; reductions in PM levels are associated with decreases in cardiovascular mortality within a time frame as short as a few years; and many credible pathological mechanisms have been elucidated that lend biological plausibility to these findings. It is the opinion of the writing group that the overall evidence is consistent with a causal relationship between PM(2.5) exposure and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This body of evidence has grown and been strengthened substantially since the first American Heart Association scientific statement was published. Finally, PM(2.5) exposure is deemed a modifiable factor that contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
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            Air pollution and cardiovascular disease: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Expert Panel on Population and Prevention Science of the American Heart Association.

            Air pollution is a heterogeneous, complex mixture of gases, liquids, and particulate matter. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a consistent increased risk for cardiovascular events in relation to both short- and long-term exposure to present-day concentrations of ambient particulate matter. Several plausible mechanistic pathways have been described, including enhanced coagulation/thrombosis, a propensity for arrhythmias, acute arterial vasoconstriction, systemic inflammatory responses, and the chronic promotion of atherosclerosis. The purpose of this statement is to provide healthcare professionals and regulatory agencies with a comprehensive review of the literature on air pollution and cardiovascular disease. In addition, the implications of these findings in relation to public health and regulatory policies are addressed. Practical recommendations for healthcare providers and their patients are outlined. In the final section, suggestions for future research are made to address a number of remaining scientific questions.
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              Microglia and inflammation-mediated neurodegeneration: multiple triggers with a common mechanism.

              Inflammation, a common denominator among the diverse list of neurodegenerative diseases, has recently been implicated as a critical mechanism responsible for the progressive nature of neurodegeneration. Microglia are the resident innate immune cells in the central nervous system and produce a barrage of factors (IL-1, TNFalpha, NO, PGE2, superoxide) that are toxic to neurons. Evidence supports that the unregulated activation of microglia in response to environmental toxins, endogenous proteins, and neuronal death results in the production of toxic factors that propagate neuronal injury. In the following review, we discuss the common thread of microglial activation across numerous neurodegenerative diseases, define current perceptions of how microglia are damaging neurons, and explain how the microglial response to neuronal damage results in a self-propelling cycle of neuron death.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Health Science, POLARIS Research Center, University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy
                [2 ]Department of Medical Biotechnologies and Translational Medicine (BIOMETRA), PhD School of Molecular Medicine, University of Milano, Segrate, Italy
                [3 ]Department of Environmental Science, POLARIS Research Center, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milano, Italy
                Virginia Commonwealth University, United States of America
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: FF GS PP. Performed the experiments: FF GS CB VT PM. Analyzed the data: FF GS CB PP. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: GS PP CB PM MC. Wrote the paper: FF GS PP MC.

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2013
                25 February 2013
                : 8
                : 2
                PONE-D-12-32372
                10.1371/journal.pone.0056636
                3581503
                23451061

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Counts
                Pages: 11
                Funding
                This research has received a financial support by the CARIPLO Foundation to the project TOSCA “Toxicity of particulate matter and marker of risk”. Francesca Farina obtained a grant for this project. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology
                Anatomy and Physiology
                Neurological System
                Central Nervous System
                Respiratory System
                Respiratory Physiology
                Cardiovascular System
                Integrative Physiology
                Biochemistry
                Proteins
                Tissue Proteins
                Blood Chemistry
                Chemical Biology
                Immunology
                Immune System
                Cytokines
                Immunity
                Inflammation
                Model Organisms
                Animal Models
                Mouse
                Molecular Cell Biology
                Cellular Stress Responses
                Toxicology
                Neurotoxicology
                Toxic Agents

                Uncategorized

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