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      Social support moderates stress effects on depression

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          Abstract

          This study examined the moderator effect of social support on the relationship between stress and depression of university students. A total of 632 undergraduate students completed the measures of perceived stress, perceived social support, and depression. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that social support moderated the association between stress and depression. Undergraduate students with high stress reported higher scores in depression than those with low stress with low social support level. However, the impact of stress on depression was much smaller in the high social support group compared with that in the low social support group.

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          Most cited references 35

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          A SELF-RATING DEPRESSION SCALE.

           W W Zung (1964)
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            Epidemiology of women and depression.

             R Kessler (2003)
            Depression is the leading cause of disease-related disability among women in the world today. Depression is much more common among women than men, with female/male risk ratios roughly 2:1. Recent epidemiological research is reviewed. Implications are suggested for needed future research. The higher prevalence of depression among women than men is due to higher risk of first onset, not to differential persistence or recurrence. Although the gender difference first emerges in puberty, other experiences related to changes in sex hormones (pregnancy, menopause, use of oral contraceptives, and use of hormone replacement therapy) do not significantly influence major depression. These observations suggest that the key to understanding the higher rates of depression among women than men lies in an investigation of the joint effects of biological vulnerabilities and environmental provoking experiences. Advancing understanding of female depression will require future epidemiologic research to focus on first onsets and to follow incident cohorts of young people through the pubertal transition into young adulthood with fine-grained measures of both sex hormones and gender-related environmental experiences. Experimental interventions aimed at primary prevention by jointly manipulating putative biological and environmental risk factors will likely be needed to adjudicate between contending causal hypotheses regarding the separate and joint effects of interrelated risk factors.
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              A systematic review of studies of depression prevalence in university students.

              Depression is a common health problem, ranking third after cardiac and respiratory diseases as a major cause of disability. There is evidence to suggest that university students are at higher risk of depression, despite being a socially advantaged population, but the reported rates have shown wide variability across settings. To explore the prevalence of depression in university students. PubMed, PsycINFO, BioMed Central and Medline were searched to identify studies published between 1990 and 2010 reporting on depression prevalence among university students. Searches used a combination of the terms depression, depressive symptoms, depressive disorders, prevalence, university students, college students, undergraduate students, adolescents and/or young adults. Studies were evaluated with a quality rating. Twenty-four articles were identified that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Reported prevalence rates ranged from 10% to 85% with a weighted mean prevalence of 30.6%. The results suggest that university students experience rates of depression that are substantially higher than those found in the general population. Study quality has not improved since 1990. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                wangxingminanhui@126.com
                cailin78s@sina.com
                jingqianbnu@outlook.com
                pengjx880124@sina.com
                Journal
                Int J Ment Health Syst
                Int J Ment Health Syst
                International Journal of Mental Health Systems
                BioMed Central (London )
                1752-4458
                13 November 2014
                13 November 2014
                2014
                : 8
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [ ]Anhui Provincial Committee Party School, Hefei, China
                [ ]Department of International Exchange and Cooperation, Kunming University, Kunming, China
                [ ]School of Business, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China
                [ ]Department of Psychology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, China
                Article
                203
                10.1186/1752-4458-8-41
                4242489
                © Wang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014

                This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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                Research
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2014

                Neurology

                university students, moderating effect, depression, social support, stress

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