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      Neoplasias hepáticas malignas: Hepatocarcinoma: papel de la biopsia hepática, estudios de inmunohistoquímica y otros aspectos importantes Translated title: Malignant Hepatic Neoplasms: Hepatocellular carcinoma: the roles of liver biopsies and immunohistochemical studies and other important issues

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          Abstract

          Continuamos con la revisión de los tumores hepáticos. Nos referiremos a los tumores hepáticos primarios malignos más frecuentes. Tal como lo mencionamos anteriormente, los tumores malignos hepatobiliares son un espectro de tumores invasivos que reciben su nombre dependiendo de su célula de origen. De acuerdo con la Agencia Internacional para el Estudio del Cáncer (IARC), los tumores hepáticos malignos constituyen la segunda causa de muerte en el mundo, con aproximadamente 745 000 muertes/año (1). Al igual que en el artículo anterior, el objetivo es identificar aquellos aspectos más relevantes de estas neoplasias, en especial los hallazgos morfológicos que generan mayor problema diagnóstico en la utilidad de los estudios de inmunohistoquímica y sus diagnósticos diferenciales. La primera parte de esta revisión se centrará en el hepatocarcinoma, el más frecuente de los tumores hepáticos epiteliales malignos, algunas de sus variantes y sus lesiones precursoras. También en el controvertido papel de la biopsia hepática para su diagnóstico

          Translated abstract

          We continue with our review of liver tumors in which we will refer to the most common primary malignant liver tumors. As mentioned previously, hepatobiliary malignancies are a spectrum of invasive tumors whose names depend on their origins. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), malignant liver tumors are the second leading cause of death worldwide with approximately 745,000 deaths/year. (1) As in the previous article, the aim here will be to identify the most relevant aspects of these neoplasms. In particular we will look at morphological findings that generate major diagnostic problems and at the usefulness of immunohistochemical studies and their differential diagnoses. Hepatic carcinoma, the most frequent malignant epithelial tumor of the liver is the focus of the first part of this review. We will look at some of its variants and its precursor lesions, and at the controversial role of liver biopsies for diagnosis

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          Most cited references 48

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          Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012.

          Estimates of the worldwide incidence and mortality from 27 major cancers and for all cancers combined for 2012 are now available in the GLOBOCAN series of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We review the sources and methods used in compiling the national cancer incidence and mortality estimates, and briefly describe the key results by cancer site and in 20 large "areas" of the world. Overall, there were 14.1 million new cases and 8.2 million deaths in 2012. The most commonly diagnosed cancers were lung (1.82 million), breast (1.67 million), and colorectal (1.36 million); the most common causes of cancer death were lung cancer (1.6 million deaths), liver cancer (745,000 deaths), and stomach cancer (723,000 deaths). © 2014 UICC.
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            Aflatoxins as a cause of hepatocellular carcinoma.

             James Kew (2013)
            Aflatoxins, metabolites of the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, are frequent contaminants of a number of staple foods, particularly maize and ground nuts, in subsistence farming communities in tropical and sub-tropical climates in sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern Asia and parts of South America. Contamination of foods occurs during growth and as a result of storage in deficient or inappropriate facilities. These toxins pose serious public health hazards, including the causation of hepatocellular carcinoma by aflatoxin B1. Exposure begins in utero and is life-long. The innocuous parent molecule of the fungus is converted by members of the cytochrome p450 family into mutagenic and carcinogenic intermediates. Aflatoxin-B1 is converted into aflatoxin B1-8,9 exo-epoxide, which is in turn converted into 8,9-dihydroxy-8-(N7) guanyl-9-hydroxy aflatoxin B1 adduct. This adduct is metabolized into aflatoxin B1 formaminopyrimidine adduct. These adducts are mutagenic and carcinogenic. In addition, an arginine to serine mutation at codon 249 of the p53 tumor suppressor gene is produced, abrogating the function of the tumor suppressor gene, and contributing to hepatocarcinogenesis. Aflatoxin B1 acts synergistically with hepatitis B virus in causing hepatocellular carcinoma. A number of interactions between the two carcinogens may be responsible for this action, including integration of hepatitis B virus x gene and its consequences, as well as interference with nucleotide excision repair, activation of p21waf1/cip1, generation of DNA mutations, and altered methylation of genes. But much remains to be learnt about the precise pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for aflatoxin B1-induced hepatocellular carcinoma as well as the interaction between the toxin and hepatitis B virus in causing the tumor.
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              The evolving epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma: a global perspective.

              Primary liver cancer, the majority of which are hepatocellular carcinomas, is now the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma is a unique cancer that typically arises in the setting of chronic liver disease at a rate dependent upon the complex interplay between the host, disease and environmental factors. Infection with chronic hepatitis B or C virus is currently the dominant risk factor worldwide. However, changing lifestyle and environmental factors in western countries plus rising neonatal hepatitis B vaccination rates and decreasing exposure to dietary aflatoxins in developing countries are driving an evolution of the epidemiology of this cancer. An understanding of this change is crucial in combating the rising incidence currently being seen in western regions and will underpin the efforts to reduce the mortality rates associated with this cancer.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                rcg
                Revista colombiana de Gastroenterología
                Rev. colomb. Gastroenterol.
                Asociación Colombiana de Gastroenterología (Bogotá, , Colombia )
                0120-9957
                2500-7440
                June 2015
                : 30
                : 2
                : 232-242
                Affiliations
                [01] Bogotá orgnameHospital Universitario Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá orgdiv1Sección Anatomía Patológica Colombia
                Article
                S0120-99572015000200014 S0120-9957(15)03000214
                ee4ebf74-7639-4f74-9595-2dade361f26e

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 32, Pages: 11
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