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      Blood Pressure Response to Uncomplicated Hemodialysis: The Importance of Changes in Stroke Volume

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          Background: The cause of blood pressure (BP) changes during uncomplicated hemodialysis (HD) has not been fully investigated. Controversy exists whether changes in BP result from changes in stroke volume (SV) or total peripheral resistance (TPR). Methods: We investigated 19 patients using continuous BP monitoring (Portapres<sup>®</sup>) and subsequent Modelflow<sup>®</sup> analysis, yielding continuous SV, cardiac output (CO) and TPR values. Blood volume (BV) monitoring was also performed. For each patient, the sensitivity index (SI) was calculated. The SI is the slope of the curve depicting the relationship between the systolic BP (SBP) response and the BV response. The patients were divided into two groups: group A had an SI >1 which means a decrease in SBP in response to BV change, and group B had an SI <1. In these patients, SBP remained stable despite a BV change. Results: Baseline characteristics and baseline values of all parameters were similar between the groups. In group A, SBP decreased by 25 ± 19 mm Hg and in group B the SBP increased by 5.0 ± 29 mm Hg (p < 0.05), while BV change was similar (10.6 ± 4.9 and 11.2 ± 4.2%, respectively). The difference in SBP response was caused by a different SV response (group A –44 ± 16% and group B –26 ± 18%, p = 0.04), while the TPR response was similar (71 ± 27% in group A vs. 59 ± 58% in group B). Conclusion: Patients responding with a BP decrease to BV reduction during uncomplicated HD differ in their SV response from patients with a stable BP.

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          Most cited references 6

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          Relationship between volume status and blood pressure during chronic hemodialysis.

          The relationship between volume status and blood pressure (BP) in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients remains incompletely understood. Specifically, the effect of interdialytic fluid accumulation (or intradialytic fluid removal) on BP is controversial. We determined the association of the intradialytic decrease in body weight (as an indicator of interdialytic fluid gain) and the intradialytic decrease in plasma volume (as an indicator of postdialysis volume status) with predialysis and postdialysis BP in a cross-sectional analysis of a subset of patients (N=468) from the Hemodialysis (HEMO) Study. Fifty-five percent of patients were female, 62% were black, 43% were diabetic and 72% were prescribed antihypertensive medications. Dry weight was defined as the postdialysis body weight below which the patient developed symptomatic hypotension or muscle cramps in the absence of edema. The intradialytic decrease in plasma volume was calculated from predialysis and postdialysis total plasma protein concentrations and was expressed as a percentage of the plasma volume at the beginning of HD. Predialysis systolic and diastolic BP values were 153.1 +/- 24.7 (mean +/- SD) and 81.7 +/- 14.8 mm Hg, respectively; postdialysis systolic and diastolic BP values were 136.6 +/- 22.7 and 73.9 +/- 13.6 mm Hg, respectively. As a result of HD, body weight was reduced by 3.1 +/- 1.3 kg and plasma volume was contracted by 10.1 +/- 9.5%. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that each kg reduction in body weight during HD was associated with a 2.95 mm Hg (P=0.004) and a 1.65 mm Hg (P=NS) higher predialysis and postdialysis systolic BP, respectively. In contrast, each 5% greater contraction of plasma volume during HD was associated with a 1.50 mm Hg (P=0.026) and a 2.56 mm Hg (P < 0.001) lower predialysis and postdialysis systolic BP, respectively. The effects of intradialytic decreases in body weight and plasma volume were greater on systolic BP than on diastolic BP. HD treatment generally reduces BP, and these reductions in BP are associated with intradialytic decreases in both body weight and plasma volume. The absolute predialysis and postdialysis BP levels are influenced differently by acute intradialytic decreases in body weight and acute intradialytic decreases in plasma volume; these parameters provide different information regarding volume status and may be dissociated from each other. Therefore, evaluation of volume status in chronic HD patients requires, at minimum, assessments of both interdialytic fluid accumulation (or the intradialytic decrease in body weight) and postdialysis volume overload.
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            A comparison of cardiac output derived from the arterial pressure wave against thermodilution in cardiac surgery patients †

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              Comparison of intrabrachial and finger blood pressure in healthy elderly volunteers.

              This study was performed to compare continuous Finapres (FIN) and intrabrachial (IAP) blood pressure in healthy elderly volunteers. Fifteen elderly subjects (age 71 to 83) without cardiovascular disease and an intraarterial mean (range) systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 162 (122 to 195) and 73 (62 to 88) mm Hg, respectively, participated in the study. A 10-min head-up tilt, 10 min active standing, a 15-sec Valsalva, and a 5-min mental arithmetic were performed in random order. Beat-to-beat values of systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure were analyzed. At rest, FIN underestimated IAP by 16.8 +/- 2.6 (SE), 10.8 +/- 1.5, and 17.5 +/- 1.6 mm Hg for systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure, respectively (P < .05). During head-up tilt, FIN overestimated the intraarterial systolic blood pressure response by 7.2 +/- 1.6 (SE) mm Hg (P < .05). Group-averaged changes in diastolic and mean arterial IAP were followed closely by FIN. During standing, Finapres closely followed intraarterial diastolic and mean arterial pressure but the increase in systolic blood pressure was higher at the finger as compared to intrabrachial recordings, resembling the results of head-up tilt. During the Valsalva maneuver, maximal responses in systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure were underestimated by FIN by 12.1 +/- 3.3 (SE), 6.8 +/- 2.7, and 7.1 +/- 1.7 mm Hg, respectively (P < .05 for all parameters). During mental arithmetic, FIN underestimated the intraarterial systolic blood pressure response by 6.1 +/- 2.7 (SE) mm Hg (P < .05), while diastolic and mean arterial pressure responses were followed correctly by FIN. It is concluded that apart from systolic blood pressure, FIN closely follows intraarterial blood pressure responses for the orthostatic maneuvers and mental arithmetic. During Valsalva, the rapid changes in blood pressure were followed in direction but not in magnitude.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Clin Pract
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                March 2004
                17 November 2004
                : 96
                : 3
                : c82-c87
                aDepartments of General Internal Medicine and Nephrology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, and bDepartment of Nephrology, Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, The Netherlands
                76745 Nephron Clin Pract 2004;96:c82–c87
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 22, Pages: 1
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                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Stroke volume, Hemodialysis, Blood pressure, Blood volume, Hemodynamics


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