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      Acute Kidney Disease Increases the Risk of Post-Kidney Biopsy Bleeding Complications

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          Abstract

          Introduction: Kidney biopsy, providing the insightful information for most kidney diseases, is an invasive diagnostic tool with certain risks ranging from the least severe macroscopic hematuria to the most severe life-threatening bleeding necessitating renal artery embolization. We aimed to compare the postbiopsy bleeding complications between 2 common methods and to further explore the risk factors of bleeding complications in patients using the negative pressure suction puncture (NPS) method. Methods: We retrospectively collected the data from percutaneous native kidney biopsies in 2016. The clinical, laboratory tests, pathological findings, and the occurrence of bleeding complications following kidney biopsy were analyzed. The kidney biopsy was performed in our center by experienced nephrologists with 2 different methods, namely, NPS method and real-time ultrasound-guided needle (RTU) method. We compared rates of complications between 2 methods and evaluated univariate and multivariate association of risk factors with bleeding complications in the NPS group. Results: 626 kidney biopsies were performed between January 2016 and December 2016. There were 83.2% (521/626) participants in the NPS group and 16.8% (105/626) in the RTU group. There were more participants in the RTU group needing >1 needle pass during biopsy than those in the NPS group (61.0 vs. 14.7%, p < 0.001). Acute kidney disease (AKD) occurred before the procedure of kidney biopsy accounted for 13.8% (72/521) in the NPS group and 1.9% (2/105) in the RTU group. The renal pathological findings revealed higher number of glomeruli in the NPS group than in the RTU group (26.8 ± 13.0 vs. 17.2 ± 8.6, p < 0.001). The incidence of bleeding complications in the NPS group was lower than that in the RTU group (9.2 vs. 21.9%, p < 0.01). Logistic multivariate regression showed that AKD was independently associated with bleeding complications after kidney biopsy in the NPS group. Conclusion: Regarding the bleeding risk, there was noninferiority of NPS over RTU. AKD contributes to higher risks of bleeding complications after kidney biopsy.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Bleeding complications of native kidney biopsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

          Kidney biopsy provides important information for nephrologists, but the risk of complications has not been systematically described. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and prospective or retrospective observational studies. Adults undergoing native kidney biopsy in an inpatient or outpatient setting. MEDLINE indexed studies from January 1980 through June 2011; sample size of 50 or more. Native kidney biopsy with automated biopsy device and real-time ultrasonographic guidance. Macroscopic hematuria and erythrocyte transfusion rates and factors associated with these outcomes. 34 studies of 9,474 biopsies met inclusion criteria. The rate of macroscopic hematuria was 3.5% (95% CI, 2.2%-5.1%), and erythrocyte transfusion was 0.9% (95% CI, 0.4%-1.5%). Significantly higher rates of transfusion were seen with the following: 14-gauge compared with smaller needles (2.1% vs 0.5%; P = 0.009), studies with mean serum creatinine level ≥2.0 mg/dL (2.1% vs 0.4%; P = 0.02), ≥50% women (1.9% vs 0.6%; P = 0.03), and ≥10% of biopsies for acute kidney injury (1.1% vs 0.04%; P < 0.001). Higher transfusion rates also were observed in studies with a mean age of 40 years or older (1.0% vs 0.2%; P = 0.2) and mean systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg (1.4% vs 0.1%; P = 0.09). Similar relationships were noted for the macroscopic hematuria rate with the same predictors, but none was statistically significant. Publication bias, few randomized controlled trials, and missing data. Native kidney biopsy using automated biopsy devices and real-time ultrasonography is associated with a relatively small risk of macroscopic hematuria and erythrocyte transfusion requirement. Using smaller gauge needles may lower complication rates. Patient selection may affect outcome because studies with higher serum creatinine levels, more women, and higher rates of acute kidney injury had higher complication rates. Future studies should further evaluate risk factors for complications. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Predictors of bleeding complications in percutaneous ultrasound-guided renal biopsy.

            The risks associated with performing a percutaneous renal biopsy have substantially decreased in the past two decades because of technical advances in the method. However, bleeding complications still occur, resulting in increased hospital stay and treatment costs. We investigated the predictive value of demographics (age, gender), clinical data (blood pressure), baseline chemistry (hemoglobin/hematocrit, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, bleeding time, serum creatinine, daily proteinuria), and needle size for the risk of major (need for blood transfusion, nephrectomy, or angiography) or minor (no need for any intervention) postrenal biopsy bleeding complications. This was a prospective cohort study of 471 patients who underwent ultrasound-guided biopsy of native kidney by automated needle in a single center; all biopsies were performed by two experienced nephrologists. Patients with transplant kidneys were excluded from the study. Predictors of postbiopsy bleeding were assessed by multiple linear and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Data are presented as unadjusted (OR) and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The study cohort consisted of 471 (277 males, 194 females) patients. Of these, 161 (34.1%) experienced postbiopsy bleeding [157 (33.3%) hematomas, 2 (0.4%) gross hematuria, 2 (0.4%) arteriovenous fistula]. Major complications were seen in 6 (1.2%) patients (blood transfusion, N= 2; angiography, N= 3; nephrectomy, N= 1), but no deaths occurred. The risk of postbiopsy bleeding was higher in women (39.7% women, 30.3% men, AOR 2.05, 95% CI 1.26 to 3.31, P= 0.004), younger subjects (35.0 +/- 14.5 years vs. 40.3 + 15.4, AOR 0.80, CI 0.68 to 0.94, P= 0.006), and patients with higher baseline partial thromboplastin time (102.7 + 11.8% vs. 100.1 + 10.0%, AOR 1.26, CI 1.02 to 1.54, P= 0.032). These findings were independent of size of hematoma. Although the methods for performing a percutaneous renal biopsy have improved in the past two decades, renal biopsy is still not a risk-free procedure. Of the data routinely collected for potential predictors of postbiopsy bleeding complications, only gender, age, and baseline partial thromboplastin time show a significant predictive value. The other variables investigated do not have any predictive value.
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              The changing pattern of adult primary glomerular disease.

              Published biopsy series have shown geographical and temporal variations in the patterns of primary glomerulonephritis (GN). IgA nephropathy is the most common type of GN in most European studies, but there is evidence suggesting that focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is increasingly common in the USA in all ethnic groups. We report the analysis of 30 years of native renal biopsies and the temporal pattern of primary glomerular disease in a single United Kingdom (UK) region. All 1844 adult native kidney biopsies for 30 years (1976-2005 inclusive) were analysed. The data were divided into three 10-year time frames, and trends in the biopsy rate and diagnosis of primary glomerular disease were considered. Biopsy rates increased significantly from 2.02 to 7.08 per hundred thousand population per year (php/year) (chi(2) = 55.9, P < 0.001), and the mean patient age at biopsy rose from 33 to 49 years over the study period (F = 58, P < 0.001). Primary GN was documented in 49% of biopsies; the most common diagnoses within this group were IgA nephropathy (38.8%), membranous nephropathy (29.4%), minimal change disease (9.8%), membranoproliferative GN type 1 (9.6%) and FSGS (5.7%). There was a significant increase in the proportion of IgA nephropathy (chi(2) = 9.6, P = 0.008) and a decrease in membranous nephropathy (chi(2) = 7.2, P = 0.03) over time. The population incidence of FSGS was low and unchanged at 0.18 php/ year from 1986 to 2005. Consistent with several other European studies, IgA nephropathy was the most common primary glomerular disease in this UK region. The diagnosis of FSGS was uncommon with no evidence of a rise in incidence.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2020
                December 2020
                26 October 2020
                : 45
                : 6
                : 873-882
                Affiliations
                Department of Nephrology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
                Author notes
                *Xiaoxia Pan, Department of Nephrology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, No. 197, Ruijin Er Road, Shanghai 200025 (China), pxx10768@rjh.com.cn
                Article
                509443 Kidney Blood Press Res 2020;45:873–882
                10.1159/000509443
                33105145
                © 2020 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes as well as any distribution of modified material requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Research Article

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Kidney biopsy, Bleeding, Acute kidney disease, Complications

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