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      Cleanup of water polluted with crude oil or diesel fuel using rice husks ash

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      Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers
      Elsevier BV

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          Low-cost adsorbents for heavy metals uptake from contaminated water: a review.

          In this article, the technical feasibility of various low-cost adsorbents for heavy metal removal from contaminated water has been reviewed. Instead of using commercial activated carbon, researchers have worked on inexpensive materials, such as chitosan, zeolites, and other adsorbents, which have high adsorption capacity and are locally available. The results of their removal performance are compared to that of activated carbon and are presented in this study. It is evident from our literature survey of about 100 papers that low-cost adsorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for certain metal ions as compared to activated carbon. Adsorbents that stand out for high adsorption capacities are chitosan (815, 273, 250 mg/g of Hg(2+), Cr(6+), and Cd(2+), respectively), zeolites (175 and 137 mg/g of Pb(2+) and Cd(2+), respectively), waste slurry (1030, 560, 540 mg/g of Pb(2+), Hg(2+), and Cr(6+), respectively), and lignin (1865 mg/g of Pb(2+)). These adsorbents are suitable for inorganic effluent treatment containing the metal ions mentioned previously. It is important to note that the adsorption capacities of the adsorbents presented in this paper vary, depending on the characteristics of the individual adsorbent, the extent of chemical modifications, and the concentration of adsorbate.
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            Agricultural residues as precursors for activated carbon production—A review

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              Waste materials for activated carbon preparation and its use in aqueous-phase treatment: a review.

              Commercial activated carbon is a preferred adsorbent for the removal of micropollutants from the aqueous phase; however, its widespread use is restricted due to high associated costs. To decrease treatment costs, attempts have been made to find inexpensive alternative activated carbon (AC) precursors, such as waste materials. Some reviews report the use of waste materials for the preparation of AC; however, these studies are restricted to either type of wastes, preparation procedures, or specific aqueous-phase applications. The present work reviews and evaluates literature dedicated both to the preparation of AC by recycling different types of waste materials and also to its application in various aqueous-phase treatments. It is clear that conventional (from agriculture and wood industry) and non-conventional (from municipal and industrial activities) wastes can be used to prepare AC, that can be applied in various aqueous treatment processes, namely to remove organic pollutants, dyes, volatile organic compounds, and heavy metals. Moreover, high surface areas can be obtained using either physical or chemical activation; however, combined treatments might enhance the surface properties of the adsorbent, therefore increasing its adsorption capacity. It is evident from the revision made that AC prepared from both conventional and non-conventional wastes might effectively compete with the commercial ones. This happens mostly when the activation procedures are optimized considering both the raw material used to produce the carbons and the contaminants to be removed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers
                Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers
                Elsevier BV
                18761070
                November 2011
                November 2011
                : 42
                : 6
                : 957-964
                Article
                10.1016/j.jtice.2011.04.004
                ee74b939-eb67-4ec6-bc5c-2f08014844c3
                © 2011

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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