Keys to adults and larvae of the genera of West Palaearctic nematine sawflies are presented. Species of some of the smaller genera are keyed, and their taxonomy, distribution, and host plants reviewed, with a geographic focus on north-western Europe, particularly Sweden. Dinematus Lacourt, 2006 is a new junior subjective synonym of Pristiphora Latreille, 1810, resulting in the new combination Pristiphora krausi (Lacourt, 2006) for the type species of Dinematus . Hemichroa monticola Ermolenko, 1960 is a new junior subjective synonym of Hemichroa australis (Serville, 1823). Lectotypes are designated for Tenthredo opaca Fabricius, 1775, Mesoneura opaca var. nigerrima Enslin, 1914, Mesoneura opaca var. obscuriventris Enslin, 1914, Nematus hypogastricus Hartig, 1837, Nematus alnivorus Hartig, 1840, Leptopus rufipes Förster, 1854, Nematus protensus Förster, 1854, and Platycampus luridiventris var. pleuritica Enslin, 1915. A phylogenetic analysis based on four genes (mitochondrial COI and nuclear NaK, POL2, and TPI) supports the current generic classification.