Thyroid function tests were performed on 16 clinically euthyroid patients with end-stage renal failure undergoing regular haemodialysis or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and compared with 8 healthy subjects. The patient groups were carefully matched, especially regarding relative duration of dialysis (mean of 24 months). Total serum thyroxine, total triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine and reverse triiodothyronine were significantly lower in both patient groups than control. The thyrothrophin response to the standard thyrotrophin-releasing hormone test was delayed and blunted. Using a novel concentration technique we measured loss of T<sub>4</sub> in peritoneal dialysate effluent and found it to be approximately 10% of daily thyroidal T<sub>4</sub> release.