During development of the rat anterior pituitary gland (APG) there is a fall in DNA replication which is accompanied by a decline in the activity of the soluble DNA polymerase and of an endonuclease. This latter enzyme is capable of activating the DNA template for the DNA polymerase assay. Sulpiride sulfate, a drug known to produce prolactin release from the APG, increases thymidine incorporation in the APG 20 h after the injection. This drug also enhances the activity of the soluble DNA polymerase while that of the endonuclease and thymidine kinase does not change. The results suggest that the intracellular prolactin content regulates DNA replication in mammotrophs and that the soluble DNA polymerase plays an important role in this regulation.