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      Plant nitrogen assimilation and use efficiency.

      1 , ,
      Annual review of plant biology
      Annual Reviews

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          Abstract

          Crop productivity relies heavily on nitrogen (N) fertilization. Production and application of N fertilizers consume huge amounts of energy, and excess is detrimental to the environment; therefore, increasing plant N use efficiency (NUE) is essential for the development of sustainable agriculture. Plant NUE is inherently complex, as each step-including N uptake, translocation, assimilation, and remobilization-is governed by multiple interacting genetic and environmental factors. The limiting factors in plant metabolism for maximizing NUE are different at high and low N supplies, indicating great potential for improving the NUE of current cultivars, which were bred in well-fertilized soil. Decreasing environmental losses and increasing the productivity of crop-acquired N requires the coordination of carbohydrate and N metabolism to give high yields. Increasing both the grain and N harvest index to drive N acquisition and utilization are important approaches for breeding future high-NUE cultivars.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Annu Rev Plant Biol
          Annual review of plant biology
          Annual Reviews
          1545-2123
          1543-5008
          2012
          : 63
          Affiliations
          [1 ] State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China. ghxu@njau.edu.cn
          Article
          10.1146/annurev-arplant-042811-105532
          22224450
          ee89f56c-875a-40af-a851-ca976339d44e
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