Objective To explore the effect of early cognitive training combined with aerobic exercise on quality of life (QOL) and cognitive function recovery of patients with poststroke cognitive impairment (PSCI). Methods Ninety PSCI patients treated in our hospital from April 2019 to April 2020 were selected as the subjects and were divided into the experimental group (EG) and control group (CG) according to the admission order, with 45 cases each. Patients in CG received conventional health education combined with rehabilitation training, and those in EG accepted early cognitive training combined with aerobic exercise so as to evaluate the clinical effect of different intervention modes on PSCI patients. Results Compared with CG after intervention, EG obtained an obviously higher Stroke Specific Quality of Life scale (SS-QOL) score, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score, Barthel Index (MBI) (BI) score and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) score ( P < 0.001), and obviously shorter time for completing TMT-A and TMT-B ( P < 0.001). Conclusion Performing early cognitive training combined with aerobic exercise for PSCI patients can effectively improve their QOL and promote the recovery of cognitive function. Compared with conventional health education combined with rehabilitation training, this mode presents a higher application value. Further study will be conducive to establishing a better solution for patients.