This paper deals with two Brazilian species of the genus Pachyschelus Sol., namely: P. urvillege sp. n. and P. mimus Obenberger, 1925. P. urvillege sp. n. is described based on specimens reared from leafmined Urvillea glabra Cam. (Sapindaceae); it seems to be related to P. vanrooni Obenb., 1923, from which it can be distinguished by the absence of sexual dichroism, structural details of female pygidium and, as supposed, by the male genitalia (still unknown in P. vanrooni). P. mimus Obenberger, 1925, was reared from Psidium araça Raddi (Myrtaceae), and the male allotype is described. Oviposition, larval cephalic capsules and mines of both species are described, as well as other developmental stages of P. urvilleae. Some larvae of the latter were found parasitized by Tetrastichus sp.