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      NAC-MYB-based transcriptional regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis in land plants

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          Abstract

          Plant cells biosynthesize primary cell walls (PCW) in all cells and produce secondary cell walls (SCWs) in specific cell types that conduct water and/or provide mechanical support, such as xylem vessels and fibers. The characteristic mechanical stiffness, chemical recalcitrance, and hydrophobic nature of SCWs result from the organization of SCW-specific biopolymers, i.e., highly ordered cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Synthesis of these SCW-specific biopolymers requires SCW-specific enzymes that are regulated by SCW-specific transcription factors. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of the transcriptional regulation of SCW formation in plant cells. Advances in research on SCW biosynthesis during the past decade have expanded our understanding of the transcriptional regulation of SCW formation, particularly the functions of the NAC and MYB transcription factors. Focusing on the NAC-MYB-based transcriptional network, we discuss the regulatory systems that evolved in land plants to modify the cell wall to serve as a key component of structures that conduct water and provide mechanical support.

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          Most cited references 129

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          NAC proteins: regulation and role in stress tolerance.

          The plant-specific NAC (NAM, ATAF1,2 and CUC2) proteins constitute a major transcription factor family renowned for their roles in several developmental programs. Despite their highly conserved DNA-binding domains, their remarkable diversification across plants reflects their numerous functions. Lately, they have received much attention as regulators in various stress signaling pathways which may include interplay of phytohormones. This review summarizes the recent progress in research on NACs highlighting the proteins' potential for engineering stress tolerance against various abiotic and biotic challenges. We discuss regulatory components and targets of NAC proteins in the context of their prospective role for crop improvement strategies via biotechnological intervention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            A battery of transcription factors involved in the regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

            SECONDARY WALL-ASSOCIATED NAC DOMAIN PROTEIN1 (SND1) is a master transcriptional switch activating the developmental program of secondary wall biosynthesis. Here, we demonstrate that a battery of SND1-regulated transcription factors is required for normal secondary wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. The expression of 11 SND1-regulated transcription factors, namely, SND2, SND3, MYB103, MYB85, MYB52, MYB54, MYB69, MYB42, MYB43, MYB20, and KNAT7 (a Knotted1-like homeodomain protein), was developmentally associated with cells undergoing secondary wall thickening. Of these, dominant repression of SND2, SND3, MYB103, MYB85, MYB52, MYB54, and KNAT7 significantly reduced secondary wall thickening in fiber cells. Overexpression of SND2, SND3, and MYB103 increased secondary wall thickening in fibers, and overexpression of MYB85 led to ectopic deposition of lignin in epidermal and cortical cells in stems. Furthermore, SND2, SND3, MYB103, MYB85, MYB52, and MYB54 were able to induce secondary wall biosynthetic genes. Direct target analysis using the estrogen-inducible system revealed that MYB46, SND3, MYB103, and KNAT7 were direct targets of SND1 and also of its close homologs, NST1, NST2, and vessel-specific VND6 and VND7. Together, these results demonstrate that a transcriptional network consisting of SND1 and its downstream targets is involved in regulating secondary wall biosynthesis in fibers and that NST1, NST2, VND6, and VND7 are functional homologs of SND1 that regulate the same downstream targets in different cell types.
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              NAC transcription factors in plant abiotic stress responses.

              Abiotic stresses such as drought and high salinity adversely affect the growth and productivity of plants, including crops. The development of stress-tolerant crops will be greatly advantageous for modern agriculture in areas that are prone to such stresses. In recent years, several advances have been made towards identifying potential stress related genes which are capable of increasing the tolerance of plants to abiotic stress. NAC proteins are plant-specific transcription factors and more than 100 NAC genes have been identified in Arabidopsis and rice to date. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the six major groups were already established at least in an ancient moss lineage. NAC transcription factors have a variety of important functions not only in plant development but also in abiotic stress responses. Stress-inducible NAC genes have been shown to be involved in abiotic stress tolerance. Transgenic Arabidopsis and rice plants overexpressing stress-responsive NAC (SNAC) genes have exhibited improved drought tolerance. These studies indicate that SNAC factors have important roles for the control of abiotic stress tolerance and that their overexpression can improve stress tolerance via biotechnological approaches. Although these transcription factors can bind to the same core NAC recognition sequence, recent studies have demonstrated that the effects of NAC factors for growth are different. Moreover, the NAC proteins are capable of functioning as homo- or hetero-dimer forms. Thus, SNAC factors can be useful for improving stress tolerance in transgenic plants, although the mechanism for mediating the stress tolerance of these homologous factors is complex in plants. Recent studies also suggest that crosstalk may exist between stress responses and plant growth. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant gene regulation in response to abiotic stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-462X
                05 May 2015
                2015
                : 6
                Affiliations
                1Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Nara Institute of Science and Technology Ikoma, Japan
                2Division of Strategic Research and Development, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University Saitama, Japan
                3PRESTO (Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology), Japan Science and Technology Agency Kawaguchi, Japan
                4Faculty of Science, Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Malaya Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
                5Biomass Engineering Program Cooperation Division, RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science Yokohama, Japan
                Author notes

                Edited by: Masaru Fujimoto, The University of Tokyo, Japan

                Reviewed by: Nobutaka Mitsuda, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan; Jacqueline Grima-Pettenati, Centre National Recherche Scientifique, France

                *Correspondence: Misato Ohtani, Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama-cho, Ikoma 630-0192, Japan misato@ 123456bs.naist.jp

                This article was submitted to Plant Physiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science

                Article
                10.3389/fpls.2015.00288
                4419676
                25999964
                Copyright © 2015 Nakano, Yamaguchi, Endo, Rejab and Ohtani.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 171, Pages: 18, Words: 14326
                Categories
                Plant Science
                Review

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