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      Triad of Malnutrition, Inflammation, and Atherosclerosis in Hemodialysis Patients

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          Abstract

          Background/Aim: As chronic inflammation underlies both atherosclerosis and malnutrition, a possible link between these factors has been suggested in hemodialysis (HD) patients. We designed this study to compare nutritional indices and inflammatory parameters of HD patients with demonstrated atherosclerosis (group I) and HD patients without (group II). Methods: We included 59 and 57 patients in groups I and II, respectively. The patient groups were matched for the risk factors for atherosclerosis such as age, gender, smoking habits, hypertension, and HD duration. The nutritional status of the patients was evaluated according to laboratory parameters, normalized protein catabolic rate, anthropometric measurements, and subjective global assessment. Results: Laboratory parameters (albumin, prealbumin, total cholesterol, phosphorus, creatinine), normalized protein catabolic rate, and triceps skinfold thickness revealed a significant decline in the nutritional status of the patients with atherosclerosis. We found that the patients with atherosclerosis had significantly higher C-reactive protein, ferritin, and fibrinogen levels when we compared the patient groups for acute-phase reactants. When we assessed malnutrition as being in category B/C (B = mild to moderately malnourished, C = severely malnourished) according to subjective global assessment and inflammation on the basis of a C-reactive protein level ≧10 mg/l, among patients with atherosclerosis, there was a significantly higher proportion of them having malnutrition and inflammation. Additionally, the proportion of patients without any evidence of malnutrition and inflammation was significantly lower in group I than in group II. Conclusion: Our study gives evidence for the possible triad of malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis in HD patients.

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          Factors predicting malnutrition in hemodialysis patients: a cross-sectional study.

          Signs of protein-energy malnutrition are common in maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. To evaluate the nutritional status and relationship between various parameters used for assessing malnutrition, we performed a cross-sectional study in 128 unselected patients treated with hemodialysis (HD) thrice weekly for at least two weeks. Global nutritional status was evaluated by the subjective global nutritional assessment (SGNA). Body weight, skinfold thicknesses converted into % body fat mass (BFM), mid-arm muscle circumference, hand-grip strength and several laboratory values, including serum albumin (SA1b), plasma insulin-like growth factor I (p-IGF-I), serum C-reactive protein (SCRP) and plasma free amino acids, were recorded. Dose of dialysis and protein equivalence of nitrogen appearance (nPNA) were evaluated by urea kinetic modeling. The patients were subdivided into three groups based on SGNA: group I, normal nutritional status (36%); group II, mild malnutrition (51%); and group III, moderate or (in 2 cases) severe malnutrition (13%). Clinical factors associated with malnutrition were: high age, presence of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. nPNA and Kt/V(urea) were similar in the three groups. However, when normalized to desirable body wt, both were lower in groups II and III than in group I. Anthropometric factors associated with malnutrition were low body wt, skinfold thickness, mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), and handgrip strength. Biochemical factors associated with malnutrition were low serum levels of albumin and creatinine and low plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and branched-chain amino acids (isoleucine, leucine and valine). The serum albumin (SAlb) level was not only a predictor of nutritional status, but was independently influenced by age, sex and SCRP. Plasma IGF-1 levels also reflected the presence and severity of malnutrition and appeared to be more closely associated than SAlb with anthropometric and biochemical indices of somatic protein mass. Elevated SCRP (> 20 mg/liter), which mainly reflected the presence of infection/inflammation and was associated with hypoalbuminemia, was more common in malnourished patients than in patients with normal nutritional status, and also more common in elderly than in younger patients. Plasma amino acid levels, with the possible exception of the branched-chain amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, valine), seem to be poor predictors of nutritional status in hemodialysis patients.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            NEF
            Nephron
            10.1159/issn.1660-8151
            Nephron
            S. Karger AG
            1660-8151
            2235-3186
            2002
            July 2002
            01 July 2002
            : 91
            : 3
            : 456-462
            Affiliations
            Departments of aNephrology, bBiochemistry, and cGeneral Surgery, Başkent University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey
            Article
            64287 Nephron 2002;91:456–462
            10.1159/000064287
            12119477
            © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

            Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

            Page count
            Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 26, Pages: 7
            Product
            Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/64287
            Categories
            Original Paper

            Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

            Hemodialysis, Atherosclerosis, Inflammation, Malnutrition

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