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      Intelligent Bimetallic Nanoagents as Reactive Oxygen Species Initiator System for Effective Combination Phototherapy


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          Phototherapy is a promising oncotherapy method. However, there are various factors greatly restricted phototherapy development, including poor tumor-specific accumulation, the hypoxia in solid tumor, and the systemic phototoxicity of photosensitizer. Herein, a tumor microenvironment (TME)-responsive intelligent bimetallic nanoagents (HSA-Pd-Fe-Ce6 NAs) composed of human serum albumin (HSA), palladium-iron (Pd-Fe) bimetallic particles, and chlorin e6 (Ce6) was designed for effective combination phototherapy. The Pd-Fe part in the HSA-Pd-Fe-Ce6 NAs would react with the endogenous hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2) in an acidic ambiance within tumor to generate cytotoxic superoxide anion free radical through the “Fenton-like reaction.” H 2O 2, coupled with highly toxic singlet oxygen ( 1O 2) caused by the Ce6 component under the irradiation of 660 nm laser, resulted in synergistic cancer therapy effects in hypoxia surroundings. Besides, this nanoagents could result in hyperpyrexia-induced cell apoptosis because of superior absorption performance in near-infrared wavelength window bringing about excellent photothermal conversion efficiency. The cell cytotoxicity results showed that the survival rate after treated by 40 μg mL –1 nanoagents was only 17%, which reveals that the HSA-Pd-Fe-Ce6 NAs had the advantage of efficient and controllable phototherapy. In short, it exhibited excellent hypoxia-resistant combination phototherapy efficacy in vitro. Therefore, the multifunctional nanoagents are powerful and provide a new avenue for effective combination phototherapy.

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          The present and future role of photodynamic therapy in cancer treatment.

          It is more than 25 years since photodynamic therapy (PDT) was proposed as a useful tool in oncology, but the approach is only now being used more widely in the clinic. The understanding of the biology of PDT has advanced, and efficient, convenient, and inexpensive systems of light delivery are now available. Results from well-controlled, randomised phase III trials are also becoming available, especially for treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer and Barrett's oesophagus, and improved photosensitising drugs are in development. PDT has several potential advantages over surgery and radiotherapy: it is comparatively non-invasive, it can be targeted accurately, repeated doses can be given without the total-dose limitations associated with radiotherapy, and the healing process results in little or no scarring. PDT can usually be done in an outpatient or day-case setting, is convenient for the patient, and has no side-effects. Two photosensitising drugs, porfirmer sodium and temoporfin, have now been approved for systemic administration, and aminolevulinic acid and methyl aminolevulinate have been approved for topical use. Here, we review current use of PDT in oncology and look at its future potential as more selective photosensitising drugs become available.
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                Author and article information

                Front Bioeng Biotechnol
                Front Bioeng Biotechnol
                Front. Bioeng. Biotechnol.
                Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                08 May 2020
                : 8
                [1] 1Biomaterials Research Center, School of Biomedical Engineering, Southern Medical University , Guangzhou, China
                [2] 2Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nanomedicine, CAS Key Lab for Health Informatics, Shenzhen Engineering Laboratory of Nanomedicine and Nanoformulations, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology (SIAT), Chinese Academy of Sciences , Shenzhen, China
                [3] 3School of Materials Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology , Guilin, China
                [4] 4University of Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing, China
                [5] 5Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau , Macau, China
                [6] 6Dongguan Key Laboratory of Drug Design and Formulation Technology, Key Laboratory for Nanomedicine, Guangdong Medical University , Dongguan, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Ben Zhong Tang, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong

                Reviewed by: Zhaohui Li, Zhengzhou University, China; Zhihe Qing, Changsha University of Science and Technology, China; Zonghai Sheng, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China; Lei Ye, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China

                *Correspondence: Ping Gong, ping.gong@ 123456siat.ac.cn

                These authors have contributed equally to this work

                This article was submitted to Nanobiotechnology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology

                Copyright © 2020 Li, Li, Xiang, Yang, Li, Liu, Zhao, Zhou, Gong and Huang.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 45, Pages: 11, Words: 0
                Bioengineering and Biotechnology
                Original Research

                bimetallic nanoagents,photosensitizers,tumor microenvironment,reactive oxygen species,phototherapy


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